World History Unit 6 Lesson 1 Charlemagne & Feudalism

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1 Unit 6 Lesson 1 Charlemagne & Feudalism 1. After the fall of Rome, the migrations of Germanic peoples created several Germanic kingdoms in Europe. 2. The Franks had the strongest of these kingdoms, and they led a coalition of Christians who turned back Muslim invaders at Tours. 3. Charles unified much of Europe & was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope.

2 Unit 6 Lesson 1 Charlemagne & Feudalism Charlemagne s s Empire & Its Division

3 Unit 6 Lesson 1 Charlemagne & Feudalism Charlemagne s s Reforms 1. Created uniform laws & justice. 2. Sent out Christian missionaries. 3. Organized the Church into parishes. 4. Set minimum education requirements for clergy. (priests) 5. Encouraged education, formed a palace school under Alcuin.

4 Unit 6 Lesson 1 Charlemagne & Feudalism Feudalism 1. The threat of raids from Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars led to a decentralization of power. People relied on local rulers for protection. 2. Feudalism revolved around the feudal contract between the lord and his vassal, which listed the rights & responsibilities of each party.

5 Unit 6 Lesson 1 Charlemagne & Feudalism

6 Unit 6 Lesson 2 The Power of the Church 1. The Church was THE central institution of medieval life. It brought stability & preserved learning. 2. Monasteries were formed by those who sought to dedicate themselves to God and separate from the world. 3. The Church began to claim that the taking of its sacraments were essential to salvation.

7 Unit 6 Lesson 2 The Power of the Church 4. The Church used inquisitions, or special courts to sentence heretics. (people who deny or ads to the teachings of a religion while claiming to be a member.) 5. Excommunication & interdict were used to enforce the desires of the Church.

8 Unit 6 Lesson 2 The Power of the Church Catholic Church Power Structure Pope Archbishops Bishops Priests

9 Unit 6 Lesson 2 The Power of the Church Problems in the Church 1. Immorality & corruption among the clergy. 2. Some doubted that salvation came from the sacraments. 3. Some kings used lay investiture to appoint their own bishops. 4. The Popes struggled with kings for power.

10 Unit 6 Lesson 2 The Power of the Church Results of the Crusades 1) Europeans gained control of the Mediterranean & increased the size of their fleets. 2) Europeans were exposed to new ideas which stimulated inventions. 3) Exposure to Asian goods increased desire for them, so trade increased. 4) Europeans rediscovered their own lost writings from the past. 5) Tremendous ill-will was created between Christian Europe (Christendom) & the Muslim Middle East.

11 Unit 6 Lesson 3 England & France England 1. England was a mixture of people led by the Anglo-Saxons. 2. William s s conquest of England in 1066 would introduce feudalism & a French influence. 3. Nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215.

12 Unit 6 Lesson 3 England & France 4. The Magna Carta : 1) guaranteed the rights of nobles, 2) the Church, and 3) limited the king s s power. 5. The king was required to have new taxes approved by the Great Council, which became known as the Parliament and consisted of the House of Lords & House of Commons. 6. England had a limited monarchy.

13 Unit 6 Lesson 3 England & France France 1. Most French kings were very weak because they controlled little land directly. 2. Philip II greatly increased the lands of the monarchy & its power. 3. Philip IV developed the Estates- General, which included representatives from all classes. 4. The Estates- General had no power.

14 Unit 6 Lesson 4 Spain, the HRE, & Russia Spain 1. Spain was ruled by the Muslims after 700, and was an advanced area. 2. From , 1492, Christian knights fought a Reconquista to free Spain. 3. By 1250 most of Spain was free, but was divided into small states. 4. The marriage of Ferdinand & Isabella united most of Spain.

15 Unit 6 Lesson 4 Spain, the HRE, & Russia 5. Working with the Church, Spanish monarchs became absolute rulers.

16 Unit 6 Lesson 4 Spain, the HRE, & Russia Holy Roman Empire 1. The Holy Roman Emperors constantly fought with Popes for control of Italy, which kept them from gaining full control over their Germanic lands. 2. Potentially powerful, HREs had to rely on rulers under them, especially the Seven Electors.

17 Unit 6 Lesson 4 Spain, the HRE, & Russia The Holy Roman Empire

18 Unit 6 Lesson 4 Spain, the HRE, & Russia Early Russia 1. Kiev was the first site of Russian civilization, greatly impacted by its trade with Constantinople. 2. Russian rulers copied the Byzantine example of absolute rule. 3. For 200 years, the Mongols controlled Russia, putting their development behind the rest of Europe.

19 Unit 6 Lesson 4 Spain, the HRE, & Russia 4. Moscow led the fight for freedom from the Mongols, & her leaders became the Russian leaders. 5. Ivan III became the first czar of Russia; Ivan IV gained control over the Russian nobles, or boyars.

20 Unit 6 Lesson 5 End of Feudalism Reasons for the Decline of Feudalism 1. Population decrease caused by failed harvests & the Bubonic Plague which gave an advantage to workers. 2. Wars which weakened nobles & increased the power of kings. 3. Increased trade & the growth of cities created new economic classes outside of the feudal system

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