The Middle Ages. The Middle Ages The Basics. - Between , small kingdoms replaced provinces - Germans? How did that happen?

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1 The Middle Ages The Basics When? What? (fall of Roman Empire) - Between , small kingdoms replaced provinces - Germans? How did that happen? Impact of Germanic Invasions Concept of Government Changes The Way It Was The Change - Loyalty to and written law - Society held together through citizenship - Society held together through & - Small communities with unwritten laws and traditions - Gave no credit to officials claiming to administer justice in the name of an emperor or king they had never met

2 Kingdom of the Franks

3 Feudalism and Manorialism Medieval Government - feudalism A in which are granted the that legally belong to their, in exchange for their,, and who live on the land - fief - Medieval Social Class System type of class hierarchy: - Lord -- has aristocratic rank and claims dominion over a portion of land and the produce and labor of the serfs living thereon. - Vassal --one who enters into, usually of and mutual protection, in exchange for, which came to include the

4 Medieval Economic System economic system: manorialism Serfs (villein)-- they formed the of the feudal society. role of the serf in the economy: role of the lord in the economy: he Medieval Manor Grew or raised all fiber needed to make cloth Ground own grain, baked own bread

5 The Medieval Church THE CHURCH - in the Middle Ages was the, the dominant faith, Catholic Christianity - AGE OF FAITH - The has been called the because people so firmly believed in the doctrines (teachings) of the Roman Catholic Church THE CHURCH HEIRARCHY TERMS ASSOC. WITH THE CATHOLIC CHURCH & THE AGE OF FAITH HERESY AND THE CHURCH - the head of the Roman Catholic Church. The Pope leads from, a city within a city. The Vatican is in Rome, Italy. - A bishop who oversees a, a group of several diocese - The leader of the church in a large territory called a - senior bishops who meet as a group, called the, to elect a new Pope when the old Pope dies. The new Pope is usually a Cardinal. - The churchman who represents the church at the local level, the There are numerous parishes in a diocese. The priest administers the such as confession, communion, marriage and last rites. - ( ) The common ppl who believe in the teachings of the Church. - Priests who spend their life away from everyday existence in a. Monasteries were self-contained manors run by the monks. The monks prayed, farmed, and copied books by hand. Monks are members of groups called. Each order has its own set of rules to live by. -- lived in They taught children, ran hospitals and prayed for salvation of mankind - The strict teaching of the church - Teaching ideas that go against Church dogma - A person who teaches against the Church - Persons accused of heresy were tried in a Church court. If you were found guilty, you could be, or you could be burned at the stake. - To be kicked out of the Church. Very few people were willing to be excommunicated because Church dogma taught that if you died while excommunicated, you would go straight to hell. Excommunication was used by

6 Popes and bishops to keep kings and lords in line. the TITHE -- How did the Church support itself financially? It collected in goods or money from layperson. This 10% Church tax was called the THE ROLE The Catholic Church has been called the OF THE It supplied the following to the people throughout Medieval Europe CHURCH IN Church officials kept THE MIDDLE Monks, nuns, and priests often ran AGES and supported widows the Church was the sole source of education in much of Europe in the Middle Ages. Monks hand copied books. taught formal subjects (to the children of the wealthy nobility) and were the forerunners of many European universities. The Church maintained a in an age of violence and disorder Conflict between Church and State - Church held - Largest in Europe - Governed according to - Clergy were often the only members of society - Any could receive excommunication - Excommunication prohibited access to the - often appointed church which led to Lay Investiture - Who should appoint church officials? - The State s Position o Angered by Pope Gregory s actions because he needed to support him against powerful Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor - The Church s Position o Wanted to who plotted with kings to increase their wealth and power Pope Gregory VII Key Events in the Lay Investiture Conflict Henry IV demanded that Gregory VII resign as pope Henry IV was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII Henry realized he could not defeat the pope & begged for Gregory s forgiveness Henry was forgiven with the help of nobility Lay investiture issue resolved with the - Agreement that only could appoint church leaders - Kings could give church officials - Compromise assured kings of the clergy, & the Church the Middle Ages regardless of social and political ranking -

7 Changes in Medieval Society

8 England s Evolving Gov t - Magna Carta o Signed by King John of England in 1215 o Justinian s Code was very similar to the Magna Carta o Guaranteed what are now seen as in both England and the US Included: No taxation without representation. Trial by jury, Protection of the law France Develops - Creation of Estates-General o First Estate --- o Second Estate --- o Third Estate Added by Philip II that Philip invited to participate in the council Collectively, they were known as the Estates-General Factors Leading to the End of Medieval Society - The Great Schism o Began in when the College of Cardinals chose a French pope who moved the papacy from to o Resolved in when the Council of Constance elected a to replace the three popes who had been forced to resign (with help from Holy Roman Emperor) o This event the Church - The Bubonic Plague o Began in o Spread to Europe through flea-infested rats o Caused a severe decline in and o Caused prices o Caused peasant revolts o Caused a decline in the system o When prayer and penances failed to stop the plague, the Church Recap of Factors Leading to the End of Medieval Society 1. Great Schism= 2. Bubonic Plague= 3. New weapons Longbow = fatal within 100 yards=no need for knights 4. Hundred Years War People feel more loyal to their own country and king The king is no longer just a lord, but a national leader

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