Chapter 13 Reading Guide: European Middle Ages

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1 Chapter 13 Reading Guide: European Middle Ages Name Hour Section 1: Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms (P. 353) 1. What were the Middle Ages? Invasions of Western Europe 2. Germanic invaders caused several changes which altered the economy, government and culture of the declining Roman Empire. Describe the impact of each of the following: a. Disruption of trade: b. Downfall of cities: c. Population shifts: d. Decline of learning: e. Loss of a common language: Germanic Kingdoms Emerge 3. What was the difference between Roman society and Germanic communities concerning the concept of government? 4. Who was Clovis and how did he use Christianity with his military? Germans Adopt Christianity 5. What is a monastery? What did a person do at a monastery? 6. How were monasteries tied to education? 7. Describe the changes Gregory I made to the papacy (role of the pope). Secular: An Empire Evolves 8. What is a mayor of the palace? 9. Describe Charles Martel s power (what did he do?). 10. What was the Carolingian Dynasty? How did they get their power? 11. How did Charlemagne build such a great empire?

2 Section 2: Feudalism in Europe (P. 358) Invaders Attack Western Europe 12. Where were the Vikings from? 13. Who were the Magyars and what did they do? 14. What was the goal of the Muslim attackers? 15. What was the result of the attacks by the Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims? A New Social Order: Feudalism 16. What is feudalism? Lord: Fief: Vassal: Knights: Serfs: Manor: Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism 17. Peasants paid a high price to work on the Manor. List 5 details that prove this: Section 3: The Age of Chivalry (P. 364) Knights: Warriors on Horseback 18. How did the saddle and stirrups help change the way warfare was conducted in Europe? 19. How did feudal lords raise private armies? What was the obligation of a knight to a lord? Knighthood and the Code of Chivalry 20. Define Chivalry? How did Chivalry affect a knight s daily life (give examples)? 21. What was life like for women in feudal society? Noblewomen Peasant Women

3 Section 4: The Power of the Church (P. 370) The Far Reaching Authority of the Church 22. How did religion work as a unifying force? 23. What was canon law? What were the two harshest punishments handed down from the church (describe them)? - - The Church and the Holy Roman Empire 24. What was the Holy Roman Empire? The Emperor Clashes with the Pope 25. What was lay investiture? 26. What was the Showdown at Canossa and the Concordat of Worms? Chapter 14 Reading Guide The Formation of Western Europe Section 1: Church Reform and the Crusades (P. 379) The Age of Faith 27. What three issues worried reformers about religion during this time period? 28. What was the Curia and what were its duties? 29. What were tithes used for? The Crusades 30. Who and what initiated the Crusades or? 31. List four goals of the Crusades? What problems did the Crusaders face on the first Crusade? 33. What was the outcome of the First Crusade? 34. What happened in the Second Crusade?

4 35. What agreement was reached at the conclusion of the Third Crusade? The Crusading Spirit Dwindles 36. Describe the outcome of the Children s Crusade: 37. What was the inquisition? Who was targeted? -What happened to those suspected of heresy? Effects of the Crusades 38. List four effects of the Crusades: Section 2: Changes in Medieval Society (P. 387) A Growing Food Supply 39. What was a major factor in the increased production of food between ? 40. Why did farmers switch from oxen to the horse? 41. Explain how the three field system worked: The Guilds 42. What were guilds and why were they beneficial? Commercial Revolution 43. What was the Commercial Revolution? 44. What advancement did the Muslim Connection bring to Western Europe? Section 3: England and France Develop (P. 393) England Absorbs Waves of Invaders 45. What was going on in England in the 800s? 46. Who claimed the crown after Edward died? England s Evolving Government 47. What were the goals of English Kings during this time period? 48. What were the duties of the royal courts of justice?

5 49. What is Common Law- Then and Now? 50. What was the Magna Carta? Why was it drawn up? Capetian Dynasty Rules France 51. Who was Hugh Capet? 52. Why did the Capetians do so well? 53. Who was the most powerful of this line of kings? How old was he when he took the throne? 54. Who did this young king have great success over? 55. What honor was given to Henry s grandson Louis IX? 56. What government body did he create? 57. What was the Estate s General? What were the different estates? Section 4: The Hundred Years War (P. 398) A Church Divided 58. What happened to papal authority? Explain how this happened? 59. What huge change was made under Clement V? 60. What was the Great Schism? The Bubonic Plague Strikes 61. How was the plague spread? 62. List four effects of the plague: The Hundred Years War 63. What was the Hundred Years War? 64. What was Joan of Arc s goal? 65. List three outcomes of the Hundred Years War: -What happened to her?

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