UNIT 6 VOCABULARY. 1. Bubonic Plague. 10. Inquisition. 19. Serf. 11. Knight. 2. Chivalry. 20. Vassal. 12. Lay Investiture. 3. Clergy. 4.

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1 UNIT 6 VOCABULARY 1. Bubonic Plague 2. Chivalry 3. Clergy 4. Crusade 5. Fief 6. Gothic 7. Guild 8. Holy Roman Empire 9. Hundred-Years War 10. Inquisition 11. Knight 12. Lay Investiture 13. Lord 14. Magna Carta 15. Manor 16. Middle Ages 17. Parliament 18. Reconquista 19. Serf 20. Vassal

2 BELLRINGER 1. The Arabian Peninsula is at the crossroads of three continents. What four is it not at the crossroads of? 2. In what year did the city of Constantinople fall to the Ottoman Turks? 3. In what direction did Islam spread and grow? 4. What was the outcome of the Great Schism in 1054?

3 UNIT 6 In this unit we will learn about and analyze European Medieval society with regard to culture, politics, and economics.

4 WESTERN HALF OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE- AFTER THE FALL The gradual decline of the western half of the Roman Empire ushered in a new era known as the Middle Ages A new society emerged that had roots in : The classical heritage of Rome The beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church The customs of various Germanic tribes

5 EFFECTS OF THE FALL OF ROME Disruption of Trade- merchants faced invasions both by land and sea Downfall of cities- cities were abandoned as centers of administration Decline in learning- Germanic invaders who attacked Rome could not read or write, and had no written language Loss of a common language- as Germanic peoples mixed with the Roman population, Latin changed By the 800 s, French, Spanish, and other Romanbased languages evolved from Latin

6 EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES Middle Ages- 500 to 1500 CE Also known as the Medieval Period Also called the Dark Ages

7 GERMANIC KINGDOMS EMERGE Between 400 and 600 CE, small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman Territories The borders of those kingdoms changed constantly with the fortunes of war The Christian church survived the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire, and provided security in a time of change and chaos

8 CLOVIS AND THE FRANKS In the Roman province of Gaul (modern-day France), a Germanic people called the Franks held power The leader was a man named Clovis, whose wife was a Christian 496 CE- Clovis leads his army against another Germanic army, and called on God to give him victory (p.354) The battle turned in the favor of the Franks After the battle, Clovis and 3,000 of his followers were baptized This event led to an increased role of the church

9 PAPAL (CHURCH) POWER EXPANDS 590 CE- Gregory I becomes Pope Gregory broadened the role of the church and the office of the Pope Gregory: Used church finances to raise armies Repair roads Help the poor Negotiated peace treaties with invaders

10 REVIEW 1. In what way did the fall of Rome in 476 impact language in western Europe? 2. The Middle Ages are also known as (two other names). 3. Where were the Franks located? 4. How did Gregory I expand the role of the church? (name two)

11 BELLRINGER Write one paragraph (4-5 sentences) describing the transition from the fall of Rome to the expanded influence of the Christian church in western Europe.

12 BELLRINGER 1. In what year did Rome fall, and what was one impact of that fall? 2. What was the language of the western half of Rome, and what did that language evolve into? 3. What institution provided structure and stability after the fall of Rome? 4. What two individuals played a large role in expanding the role of the church and the authority of the Pope in society?

13 UNIT 6 In this unit we will learn about and analyze European Medieval society with regard to culture, politics, and economics.

14 BATTLE OF TOURS (732 CE) The Franks ruled over what is now France The most powerful person in the Frankish kingdom was the Mayor of the Palace, who basically ruled the kingdom In 732, Muslim armies from Spain attacked the Franks at the town of Tours A man named Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) defeated these Muslims and this made him a hero If the Muslims had been successful in this attack, Islam might have spread into western Europe

15 BATTLE OF TOURS- STOPPED THE MUSLIM ADVANCE INTO WESTERN EUROPE Tours

16 CAROLINGIAN DYNASTY On his deathbed, Charles Martel passed his power to his son, Pepin the Short Pepin wanted to be King. On behalf of the church, he agreed to fight the Lombards who were threatening Rome The Pope anointed Pepin king by the grace of God This began the Carolingian dynasty, which ruled the Franks from 751 to 987 CE

17 CHARLEMAGNE King Pepin died in 768, and his son Charles became king in 771 King Charles was known as Charlemagne Charlemagne built an empire larger than any since Ancient Rome He fought Muslims in Spain and tribes from other Germanic kingdoms Through these conquests, he also spread Christianity By 800, he had the largest kingdom in western Europe

18 CHARLEMAGNE ROMAN EMPEROR In 800 CE, Charlemagne traveled to Rome to put down a mob who had attacked the Pope To thank him, the Pope gave him the title of Roman Emperor This event signaled the joining of Germanic power, the church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire The reign and rule of Charlemagne paved the way for the development of modern Europe

19 CHARLEMAGNE S HEIRS A year before Charlemagne died in 814, he crowned his son emperor Louis was not an effective ruler, who had three sons; who fought each other for control of the empire They ended up signing the Treaty of Verdun, which divided the empire into three kingdoms The Carolingians lost power and the lack of a strong ruler led to a new system of governing and landholding: feudalism

20 REVIEW 1. Where is the town of Tours located? 2. What is significant about the battle of Tours in 732? 3. Who, by the year 800, had the largest empire in western Europe? 4. What motivated the Pope to give that individual the title of Roman Emperor?

21 BELLRINGER 1. What did Charles Martel and his army stop at the battle of Tours in 732 CE? 2. What was Charles Martel s nickname? 3. What was the significance of Charlemagne being given the title Roman Emperor by the Pope? 4. What dynasty ruled in modern-day France from CE? 5. After the rule of the this dynasty, what system developed in western Europe?

22 UNIT 6 In this unit we will learn about and analyze European Medieval society with regard to culture, politics, and economics.

23 INVADERS ATTACK WESTERN EUROPE From about 800 to 1000 CE, invasions destroyed the Carolingian empire Muslim invaders seized Sicily and raided Rome Vikings from the north, a Germanic people, worshiped war-like gods and took pride in nicknames like Eric Bloodaxe and Thorfinn Skullsplitter Viking warships could hold 300 warriors, who took turns rowing 72 oars, and were designed to row in a mere 3 feet of water

24 FEUDALISM Feudal system based on rights and obligations A Lord (landowner) granted a fief (land) to a vassal (person receiving fief) Structure of feudal society: King Church official, Nobles Knights Peasants Most peasants were serfs, people who could not lawfully leave the place they were born

25 MANORS The Manor was the Lord s estate The Lord provided the serfs with housing, farmland, and protection from bandits In return, the serfs tended the Lord s land, cared for his animals, and maintained the estate

26 SELF-CONTAINED WORLD Peasants rarely traveled more than 25 miles from their manor Typically consisted of Lord s house, church, and workshops Streams and ponds provided fish, and the mill for grinding grain was usually located on the stream Serfs or peasants usually raised or produced everything needed for daily life

27 KNIGHTS: WARRIORS ON HORSEBACK By 11 th century, western Europe was a battleground of warring nobles trying to gain more power To defend their territories and gain more territory, Lords raised private armies of knights Lords rewarded knights by giving them fiefs A knights main obligation was to serve in battle Knights spent much of their time training for war, wrestling, and hunting

28 KNIGHTS: WARRIORS Knights lived by a code called Chivalry A knight was expected to be devoted to his feudal lord, his heavenly Lord, and his chosen lady Knights were also expected to protect the weak and poor Sons of nobles trained for knighthood beginning at the age of 7 The boy would become a page, then a squire, and around the age of 21 he would become a knight

29 GO TO PAGE 366 IN YOUR BOOK

30 REVIEW 1. From 800 to 1000 CE, what locations did Muslims attack? 2. Describe Viking Warships. 3. List the structure of feudal society. 4. What was life like for a serf in medieval society? 5. What were the steps to knighthood?

31 BELLRINGER 1. How would you describe the Vikings, and what other names were they known by? 2. What was the feudal system based on during the Middle Ages? 3. Describe a typical Manor during the Middle Ages. 4. What did Lord s do to protect their territory and gain more territory? 5. At what age did a young boy leave his home to eventually become a knight?

32 UNIT 6 In this unit we will learn about and analyze European Medieval society with regard to culture, politics, and economics.

33 THE CHURCH AND STATE IN THE MIDDLE AGES Around 500 CE, Pope Gelasius I recognized that conflicts could arise between the two great forcesthe church and the state He believed that the pope should bow to the king in political matters, and that the king should bow to the pope in spiritual matters The Pope was/is the head of the church All clergy (bishops and priests) fall under his authority All Christians subject to canon law, in matters such as marriage and religious practices

34 HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 936 CE- The most effective ruler of medieval Germany was a man named Otto the Great, who also formed a close alliance with the church Following in Charlemagne s footsteps, Otto also invaded Italy on the Pope s behalf In 962 CE, the Pope rewarded Otto by crowning him emperor The empire created by Otto became known as the Holy Roman Empire

35 HENRY IV AND GREGORY VII Lay Investiture- ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials Whoever controlled lay investiture held the power in naming Bishops, influential clergy that kings sought to control 1075 CE- Pope Gregory VII bans lay investiture The German emperor, King Henry IV, called for a meeting of German bishops he had appointed King Henry IV ordered Pope Gregory VII to step down

36 HENRY IV AND GREGORY VII Pope Gregory VII excommunicates King Henry IV, and some German princes sided with the Pope To save his throne, Henry IV crosses the snowy Alps to beg the Pope s forgiveness The Pope kept the king waiting for three days in the snow before ending his excommunication

37 CONCORDAT OF WORMS The successors of King Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII continued to fight over lay investitures 1122 CE- representatives from the church and emperor meet in the German city of Worms to compromise on the issue This compromise became known as the Concordat of Worms The Church alone could appoint a Bishop, but the Emperor could veto the appointment

38 UNIT SIX ART CHOICES Charlemagne p.357 European Feudalism p.361 Japanese Feudalism p.361 Chivalry p.365 Inquisition Torture scene p.385 Coronation of Philip II p.396 Triumph of Death p.399 Longbow p.402

39 MEDIEVAL TOPIC PROFILES 1. Battle of Tours 2. Charlemagne 3. Vikings 4. Medieval Weaponry and Knights 5. Feudalism 6. Manorial System 7. Crusades 8. Role of the Church Using the topics on the left, create a mini poster. This mini poster needs to illustrate and explain in detail the topic given. Poster needs to have: Title Describe topic in detail Use Pictures Maps (if relevant)

40

41 REVIEW Amendment I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. 1. Why is the separation of church and state (government) necessary within a nation? In one paragraph (4-5 sentences) explain why this separation is necessary.

42 BELLRINGER 1. How did Pope Gelasius I feel about mixing religion with government? 2. What empire was established when Otto I was named Emperor by the Pope? 3. What was lay investiture? 4. There was a showdown between Pope Gregory VII and King Henry IV- who won? 5. What agreement was reached with the Concordat of Worms?

43 UNIT 6 In this unit we will learn about and analyze European Medieval society with regard to culture, politics, and economics.

44 THE CRUSADES The growth of Christianity and Islam presented challenges Byzantine Emperor asks for help regarding Muslims who threaten his capitol, Constantinople Pope Urban II calls for a holy war or Crusade to regain control of Holy Land 1099 CE- Crusaders from all over Europe attacked the city of Jerusalem for over a month, and captured the city

45 CRUSADES MAP

46 REASONS CRUSADES ARE LAUNCHED Muslims were attacking Europe, and controlled lands important to Christians Muslims were blocking pilgrimage routes for Christians Pope wanted to reclaim Palestine and reunite Christendom Kings and the Church saw Crusades as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome knights, who threatened peace

47 SECOND CRUSADE In the 1 st Crusade the Crusaders had won a narrow strip of land, about 650 miles Four feudal Crusader states were carved out of this territory, each ruled by a European noble Edessa, under Crusader control, was reconquered by the Turks (Muslims) The Second Crusade was organized to retake Edessa, but the Crusaders were defeated Jerusalem was taken back by Turkish leader Saladin

48 THIRD CRUSADE Third Crusade to retake Jerusalem was led by three of Europe s most powerful monarchs Richard the Lionheart ended up leading the Crusaders in the attempt to retake the Holy Land from Saladin Both Richard the Lionheart and Saladin were great leaders and warriors 1192 CE- The two arrived at a truce: Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, but unarmed Christian pilgrims could visit the Holy Places

49 RECONQUISTA In Spain, Muslims (Moors) controlled most of the country until the 1100 s The Reconquista was a long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain The last Muslim kingdom of Granada falls to the Christian army of Ferdinand and Isabella, Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella expelled all practicing Jews and Muslims out of Spain

50 SPANISH INQUISITION To unify Spain under Christianity, Ferdinand and Isabella made use of the Inquisition The Inquisition was a court held by the Church to suppress heresy A person suspected of heresy might be questioned for weeks or tortured Once a suspect confessed, they were often burned at the stake

51 THE EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES Trade increased between East and West, benefitted both Muslims and Christians Increased the power of Kings; decreased power of feudal nobles Thousands of knights lost their lives and fortunes Fall of Constantinople weakened the Byzantine Empire Increased tensions between Muslims and Christians

52 REVIEW 1. In what year did Muhammad receive the revelation from the angel Gabriel, and in what year did Pope Urban II call for a crusade to reclaim the Holy Land? 2. Name one positive aspect of the crusades, and one negative aspect. 3. What can we learn from this event in history?

53 EUROPE-14 TH CENTURY MAP Page 377- Draw boundaries and label: Portugal, Castile, Aragon, Aquitaine, France, Holy Roman Empire, Venice, Genoa, Papal States, Kingdom of Naples, Bosnia, Serbian States, Byzantine Empire, Bulgarian States, Wallachia, Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Russian Principalities, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England, Scotland, Ireland Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Adriatic Sea, Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean London, Calais, Orleans, Cordoba, Rome, Constantinople, Kiev, Novograd

54 BELLRINGER In a paragraph, discuss the crusades. What was the reason for the Pope s call to reclaim the Holy Land? Why were many kings of Europe interested? Who won the first crusade? Who won the second crusade? Who won the third crusade? What were some of the effects of this event in history?

55 UNIT 6 In this unit we will learn about and analyze European Medieval society with regard to culture, politics, and economics.

56 THE GUILDS Artisans such as wheelwrights, glassmakers, winemakers, tailors, and druggists began craft guilds Guilds set standards for quality of work, wages, and working conditions

57 THE GUILDS Apprentice- lived with master, required to obey master, trained 2-7 years, not allowed to marry, progressed to Journeyman Journeyman- worked for a master, needed to produce masterpiece to become master, had to be accepted by the guild Master- owned his own shop, worked with other masters to protect trade

58 MEDIEVAL TOWNS Expansion of trade and business lead to Commercial Revolution Population of western Europe rises, leading to rise in towns and cities As trade grew, towns all over Europe swelled with people Towns and cities dirty Streets narrow, filled with animals and waste Most people didn t bathe regularly, lacked running water Houses were fire hazards

59 THE DIVINE COMEDY Written by Dante Alighieri ( ), born in Florence, Italy Consisted of three books: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso Inferno depicts an allegorical journey through hell In Inferno, there are 9 circles of Hell, each level designated for specific sins Dante travels with Virgil, a great Roman poet, through the circles of hell to eventually reach heaven- where Dante s wife is Characters they meet: Lucifer, King Minos, Pope Boniface VIII, Ulysses, Judas Iscariot, Cassius, Brutus

60 THE DIVINE COMEDY BY DANTE

61 THE CANTERBURY TALES Written by Geoffrey Chaucer between CE Served England in Hundred-Years War as a soldier and diplomat Chaucer also lived through the Black Death Consists of 24 tales, as told through different characters Story begins at an English Inn, where the narrator joins the company of 29 pilgrims, who are traveling to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket in Canterbury The pilgrims include a knight, squire, yeoman, monk, carpenter, miller, wife, summoner, pardoner to name a few

62 MEDIEVAL TOPIC PROFILES 1. Gothic Architecture 2. Guilds 3. Bubonic Plague 4. Hundred Years War 5. Battle of Hastings 6. Dante s Inferno and Chaucer s Canterbury Tales 7. Magna Carta Using the topics on the left, create a mini poster. This mini poster needs to illustrate and explain in detail the topic given. Poster needs to have: Title Describe topic in detail Use Pictures Maps (if relevant)

63 REVIEW 1. Describe the purpose and benefit of the Guilds. 2. What was life like in towns and cities during the Middle Ages? 3. What war did Geoffrey Chaucer fight in, and what plague did he live through? 4. Where was the writer Dante from? 5. Name 5 of the pilgrims from the Canterbury Tales.

64 POP QUIZ- ANSWER QUESTIONS How many circles (levels) of hell are in Dante s Inferno? Also, which level was the worst? 2. Name the three levels of the Guild System. 3. What two historical events did Geoffrey Chaucer live through? 4. In the Pardoner s Tale (the story I told you), what kills the three friends? 5. What city was Dante from?

65 BELLRINGER 1. Describe life in a typical medieval town in western Europe. 2. What works of literature are Dante and Chaucer best known for? 3. What are the three phases within the Guild system? 4. Who are some of the characters in Dante s writings? 5. In the Pardoners tale, what ends up killing the three friends?

66 UNIT 6 In this unit we will learn about and analyze European Medieval society with regard to culture, politics, and economics.

67 ENGLAND For centuries, invaders from various regions in Europe landed on English shores Angles and Saxons stayed, bringing their own ways and creating an Anglo-Saxon culture In the 800 s, Britain was battered by fierce raids of Danish Vikings God, deliver us from the fury of the Northmen. Only Anglo-Saxon king Alfred the Great was able to turn back the Viking invaders

68 ENGLAND Gradually, Alfred the Great and his successors united the kingdom under one rule They called it England, land of the Angles In 1042 Edward the Confessor, a descendent of Alfred, became king Edward died in 1066 without an heir This led to a power struggle for the English throne, between three people

69 WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR William, Duke of Normandy, was promised the English throne when Edward died Because he believed the English throne rightly belonged to him, William crossed the English channel from Normandy and invaded England with a Norman army William s rival was Harold Godwinson, who had claimed the English throne after the death of Edward Harold was equally ambitious and wanted to keep his throne, but was facing attacks from multiple people

70 BATTLE OF HASTINGS October 14, William s army and Harold s Anglo- Saxon army meet near Hastings, in southern England The Battle of Hastings changed the course of English history King Harold was killed in this battle with an arrow in the eye, and the Normans won a decisive victory William kept roughly 1/5 of all English land for himself and gave land to Norman Lords who swore oaths of loyalty to him William unified control of the land and laid the foundation for centralized govt in England

71 BATTLE OF HASTINGS England English Channel Normandy

72 JURIES AND COMMON LAW Henry II- English king who ruled from Strengthened royal courts by sending royal judges to every part of England once a year Introduced the use of the Jury Over time, English judges formed a unified body of law known as Common Law Common Law- basis for law in many English speaking countries, including United States

73 KING HENRY II, KING RICHARD, KING JOHN Henry II was succeeded by his son Richard the Lionheart When Richard died, his brother John became king of England John ruled from 1199 to 1216, and failed as a military leader He lost Normandy and all lands in northern France to Philip II of France John was also cruel to his subjects and raised taxes to an all-time high to pay for his wars All of this forced a confrontation with his nobles

74 MAGNA CARTA (GREAT CHARTER) June 15, King John signs the Magna Carta Guarantees certain basic political rights, limited the King s power No taxation without representation Trial by jury Protection under the law Led to creation of Parliament: Knights and Burgesses= House of Commons, Nobles and Bishops=House of Lords

75 MAGNA CARTA

76 REVIEW Explain what led up to the signing of the Magna Carta and why this event was significant in World History.

77 BELLRINGER 1. Why was England a favorite target of the Vikings? 2. What prayer did the Saxons and Angles pray because of the wrath of these invaders? 3. Why did William the Conqueror raise an army, cross the English Channel, and attack King Harold of England? 4. What English King introduced the Jury, and which signed the Magna Carta? 5. How many years were there between the battle of Hastings and the signing of the Magna Carta?

78 UNIT 6 In this unit we will learn about and analyze European Medieval society with regard to culture, politics, and economics.

79 FRANCE After the breakup of Charlemagne s empire, France was divided into about 47 feudal territories 987 CE- The last Carolingian ruler, Louis the Sluggard, died Hugh Capet succeeded him, beginning the Capetian dynasty The Capetian dynasty would last from 987 to 1328 Hugh Capet was king over a small territory, but at its center stood the city of Paris

80 CAPETIAN DYNASTY Hugh Capet, his son, and his grandson were weak rulers Philip II- also known as Philip Augustus, was a powerful Capetian king who ruled from 1180 to 1223 As a child, Philip watched his father lose French land to England s King Henry II When Philip reached the age of 15, he set out to weaken the power of the English kings Philip II was crafty and did whatever was necessary to achieve his goals

81 ESTATES-GENERAL In France, there were three estates The three estates would vote on issues similar to the English Parliament or U.S. Congress First Estate- Church leaders make up First Estate Second Estate- Great Lords and Nobility make up Second Estate Third Estate- commoners, wealthy landowners, merchants make up Third Estate

82 BUBONIC PLAGUE (BLACK DEATH) Plague began in Asia It affected Asia, the Muslim world, and Europe fleet of trade ships arrived in Sicily carrying plague Got its name from purplish and blackish spots it produced on the skin The decease swept through Italy. From there it followed trade routes to Spain, France, Germany, England, and North Africa

83 BLACK DEATH The horse-riding Mongols likely carried fleas and rats in their food supplies as they swooped into China The disease came with merchants along the trade routes of Asia to southern Asia, southwest Asia, and Africa In , A Mongol army besieged Caffa. A year later, Italian merchants returned to Italy, unknowingly bringing the plague with them

84 EFFECTS OF THE BLACK DEATH Killed about 1/3 population Europe Killed 2/3 population some areas of China Town populations fell Trade declined; prices rose Jews were blamed; many driven from homes or killed Church suffered; people had less faith

85 REVIEW 1. What French dynasty lasted from CE? 2. What city was at the center of the territory ruled by Hugh Capet? 3. What did Philip Augustus set out to do at the age of 15? 4. What was the Estates-General in France? 5. How much of the European population died as a result of the Bubonic Plague? 6. What impact did the plague have on the church?

86 BELLRINGER 1. Who was the last Carolingian ruler, and what dynasty took the French throne after his death? 2. Why did Philip Augustus of France dislike the English? 3. What would the Estates-General in France be comparable to in England and the United States? 4. Name the three estates, what each group represented, and how much of the population each group represented. 5. Where did the Bubonic Plague originate? 6. Why was the plague also called the Black Death? 7. How much of the population of Europe died as a result of the plague, and what impact did it have on Christianity?

87 UNIT 6 In this unit we will learn about and analyze European Medieval society with regard to culture, politics, and economics.

88 HUNDRED YEARS WAR Between England and France, fought on French soil Takes place from CE Fought over the French throne War was launched by England s King Edward III (who was also grandson of France s King Philip IV) Victory went back and forth between the two countries

89 HUNDRED YEARS WAR Longbow gave the English an advantage 1346 CE- In the battle of Crecy, the English were outnumbered 3 to 1 English longbowmen (archers) fired thousands of arrows at the oncoming French The retreating French trampled their own archers in an effort to not lose their lives As the English got closer they began attacking the French with their long knives

90 JOAN OF ARC The French signed a treaty with the English declaring that Henry V would inherit the throne after the death of French king Charles VI a 13 year old peasant girl named Joan of Arc began having visions Joan felt moved by God to rescue France from its English conquerors May 7, Joan leads the French army into battle at a fort city named Orleans

91 JOAN OF ARC After a hard fought battle, the French retreated in despair Suddenly, Joan of Arc and a few soldiers charged back towards the fort The entire French army stormed after her, and broke the siege of the fort- and the French won the battle Joan captured in battle by the English The same king she helped to the throne (Charles VII), did nothing to rescue her May 30, Condemned as a witch and heretic, she was burned at the stake

92 IMPACT OF HUNDRED YEARS WAR Feeling of nationalism emerged in France and England Power and prestige of French monarch increased English fought War of the Roses, a fight between two noble houses who wanted the throne

93 REVIEW 1. Between what two countries was the Hundred-Years War fought, where, and why? 2. What weapon gave the English an advantage in the war? 3. What kind of visions did Joan or Arc have, and what did this lead her to do? 4. How did the King of France respond to news of Joan s capture, and what happened to Joan?

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