Module 5: Church and Society in Western Europe. Church Hierarchy. Authority of the Church. The Holy Roman Empire. Lesson 1: The Power of the Church

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1 Module 5: Church and Society in Western Europe Lesson 1: The Power of the Church Church Hierarchy Pope, Archbishops, & Bishops Lords & Knights Authority of the Church All people are Only way to avoid hell was to participate in the - sacred rituals Canon Law - church laws and - could not receive the sacraments - excluded entire town or region from receiving the sacraments Paid - tax 1/10 of income, used to help poor The Holy Roman Empire 936- Emperor allied himself with the Church Holy Roman Empire alliance of German states Princes elected the Lay-investiture appoint church officials Caused many conflicts between kings & popes Western Pope Roman Catholic Church Split of Church Eastern Emperor Eastern Orthodox 1

2 Lesson 2 Church Reform & the Crusades The Age of Faith Problems: priests, selling positions, & lay investiture The (advisors) developed Canon law New Religious Orders: Dominicans & Cathedrals Romanesque Crusades Byzantine Emperor asked the pope for help fighting the Pope II agreed despite rivalry Called for a crusade to free the Taking up the Cross Dues lo volt! - wills it Thousands of knights left for the Became known as Massacre in Jerusalem Crusaders fought for years 1 st crusade captured 2 nd & 3 rd able to capture the Holy Land 4 th crusade helped the Venetians capture - looted the capital. 2

3 Impact of the Crusades Negative: to conquer the Holy Lands among different religions Positive: Increased power reached its height (short-lived) Increased power of feudal Encouraged a economy Wider world Lesson 3: Changes in Medieval Society A Growing Food Supply Climate ( ) faster than plowing with oxen -Field System The Guilds Guild organization of individuals with the same Set for quality of work, wages, and working conditions Training: to Journeyman to Surnames tied to Commercial Revolution Trade in towns New Trade o Italians o Hanseatic League Rates Letters of Banking money at interest 3

4 Urban Life & Learning causes towns to grow conditions Merchant class looks to increase Connection to Muslim libraries gives access to works in and meeting of scholars Works in common language Geoffrey Chaucer, Tales Thomas religious truths proved by logical argument Lesson 4 England & France Develop ( ) Strong Monarchs in England The Anglo-Saxon King died w/out an heir. 2 people claim the throne:, Edward s brother-in-law Duke of Normandy William raised an army and had the backing of the. Battle of Hastings William sailed across the English Channel and the Conqueror - King of England Henry II In 1154, Henry II inherited the throne Broadened the system of royal Royal Court s decisions became the basis for English Law In time people accepted it over the courts of the or nobles determined which cases went to trial A Tragic Clash Henry s efforts with royal courts led to a bitter conflict with the Henry claimed the right to try in royal courts Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, opposed this In 1170, 4 of Henry s knights Becket in his own cathedral denied any part of the attack, and backed off the clergy Becket became a and declared a saint 4

5 The Magna Carta Henry s son,, was a clever but untrustworthy ruler. Eventually his own nobles (taxes) rebellious barons forced John to sign the Two basic ideas 1. had certain rights 2. Monarchs had to obey the King also agreed to not raise new w/out consulting the Great Council of Lords and Clergy -- Taxation w/out Lesson 5: Troubles of the 14 th Century The Black Death Plague raged through Italy reached Spain & Then spread over the rest of 1 out of every people died A Global Epidemic Had broken out before in Europe, Asia, and North Africa then died down One strain survived in the Desert Spread by on A Terrible Death Struck with stunning People ill 2-3 days then died conditions helped it spread Black bruises on skin Heavy & coughing Social Upheaval Brought Terror & Some turned to magic & for cures Some plunged into wild Some thought it was from God Christians blamed 5

6 Economic Results By late 1300s the plunged Workers died, declined soared broke out It took more than years to recover Upheaval in the Church The Church entered a spiritual Many priests & monks offered little comfort occurred within the Church Popular preachers challenged its John, attacked Church corruption He insisted the was the true source not the Church The Church responded with The Hundred Years War Between England & fought a series of conflicts English rulers tried to hold on to lands III claimed the French crown in 1337 At first won a string of victories Their success was due to the It Seemed that would bring down Joan of Arc In 1429, a yr old peasant woman appeared before the uncrowned king of France She told him sent her to save France She convinced him to give her an In one year she led several victories She was by the English Tried for witchcraft & The would go on to win the war 6

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