The European Middle Ages CE

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1 The European Middle Ages CE

2 World History- Wednesday 11/15 2nd 6 Weeks grades have now been finalized. If you have any questions, please see me in person.

3 Warm-Up Discuss with your neighbors- what do you already know (or think you know) about the Middle Ages?

4 CONTEXT After the fall of Rome: Western Europe fragmented into small kingdoms (never again reunited under central imperial rule) The East continued on as the Byzantine Empire until 1453

5

6 Recall, the Christian Church split in 1054 into 2 branches: -Roman Catholic Church (West) - Eastern Orthodox Church (East)

7 Question: What effects did the constant Germanic invasions have on the Western Roman Empire?

8

9 Effects of Germanic Invasions on the Western Roman Empire: -Disruptions to trade -Destruction of cities -Depleted economy -Decline of learning -Nobles (and many people of other classes) retreated to rural areas, leading to feudalism (decentralized government) -Loss of a common language -Changing concept of government (Germanic people were loyal to family and local lords, not emperors)

10 Question: What aspects of the Roman Empire continued during the Middle Ages in Europe?

11 What Aspects of the Roman Empire continued during the Middle Ages in Europe? -The Christian faith -The Latin language + Germanic languages in Western Europe= romance languages (Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, and French) -The Byzantine Empire in the East continued the Roman imperial tradition (strong centralized government led by an emperor, Roman laws, etc.)

12

13 THE FRANKS 511: King Clovis united the Franks under Christianity. Rulers, Church, missionaries worked together to spread Christianity 732: Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) halted Muslim expansion at the Battle of Tours (significance?) Franks then started the Carolingian Empire (ruled )

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15

16 CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE Charlemagne made the Carolingian Empire the most powerful empire since Rome Funded the creation of many monasteriesencouraged art and education Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of Rome by Pope Leo III (how is this significant?)

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18 843: Treaty of Verdun- split the Carolingian Empire into 3 parts (significance?)

19 EARLY MIDDLE AGES NOTES ( ) The breakdown of central rule in the Carolingian Empire as a result of the Treaty of Verdun (843), combined with new waves of attackers (the Vikings in the north, the Maygars in the east, and the Muslims in the south and southeast) resulted in a move to a political and economic system based on land ownership and personal loyalty known as feudalism

20 THE VIKINGS Were a Germanic people, referred to as Northmen or Norsemen Brutal in combat Used longboats Raided monasteries for food and wealth Expert navigators Sailed as far away as North America (Leif Erikson, around 1000) Reign of Terror ended as more Vikings accepted Christianity and a warmer climate made more people turn to agriculture

21 EARLY MIDDLE AGES NOTES ( )

22

23 Feudalism became a dominant method of political, social, and economic organization in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. What is feudalism? Why did feudalism start in Europe during the Middle Ages?

24 FEUDALISM Feudalism was a system based on rights and obligations, and depended on control of land. Reasons for feudalism Kings couldn t effectively defend their lands from invasions Local rulers gained political strength if they could offer protection Easier to defend a small territory during this time

25

26 Manorial system (almost entirely self-sufficient)

27 Despite their harsh lives, most peasants accepted their positions and responsibilities in feudal society. WHY?

28 KNIGHTS Provided protection Expected to follow the code of chivalry (many didn t)

29 European feudalism vs. Japanese feudalism

30 EARLY MIDDLE AGES NOTES ( ) Local lords were constantly fighting one another (why?) Massive walls and guard towers surrounded castles Attacking armies utilized siege warfare with medieval tech including: battering ram, siege tower, and trebuchet

31 EARLY MIDDLE AGES NOTES ( )

32 SOCIETY AND CULTURE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES Women in feudal society: Mostly powerless, seen as inferior (Church supported this view) Noble women had more rights, such as the ability to inherit estates from their husbands, but still restricted

33 ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN THE MIDDLE AGES Stabilizing force- brought unity Dominant social and cultural influence Attempted to remove pagan practices Popes often sought to influence political matters as well as religious life Collected taxes (tithes) Church law (canon law)- regulated things like marriage People who violated canon law faced Excommunication- removal from the Church interdict- possibility of being banned from receiving Church rites or services (could be extended to an entire group or area)

34 MEDIEVAL MONASTERIES Had wealth and resources Political, economic, and religious centers Monks would record information, create bookskeepers of knowledge during this time

35

36 Welcome back to World History! Monday 11/27 I hope you had a terrific Thanksgiving break. You need your notes and something to write with on your desk. Open your notes to where you last took notes over the Middle Ages. This week s agenda: Today: The Crusades Tomorrow: Finish the Middle Ages Wednesday: Middle Ages Quiz, start the Renaissance Thursday: Finish the Renaissance, assign Renaissance project (due Mondaytest grade) Friday: The Protestant Reformation

37 THE AGE OF FAITH 900s: Spiritual revival in the Church clergy Revived spiritual energy + Church money = cathedrals built New Gothic architecture replaced old Romanesque architecture

38 A Romanesque-style church

39 (Examples of gothic cathedrals) TOP: Inside the Notre Dame cathedral in Paris RIGHT: Cologne Cathedral in Germany

40 THE CRUSADES What were the CAUSES of the Crusades? What were the EFFECTS of the Crusades?

41 THE CRUSADES CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES INCLUDE: Byzantine emperor called Pope Urban II for help against the Turks (Muslims), who were expanding into Byzantine territory Desire to defend Christian lands Desire to take holy land back (including Jerusalem) from Muslims Religious energy from the Age of Faith Economic incentive: merchants could profit, access new trade routes Religious motive: pope promised forgiveness of sins, assured a spot in Heaven

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43 THE CRUSADES FIRST FOUR CRUSADES: First Crusade ( ): Crusaders defeated Muslims, won a narrow strip of land containing Jerusalem, carved out Crusader states from this territory Second Crusade ( ): Mission was to recapture the city of Edessa, which had been reconquered by Muslim Turks; ended in failure. Third Crusade ( ): Mission was to recapture Jerusalem; Richard the Lion-Hearted of England agreed to a truce with Saladin of the Muslim Turks in which Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, but Christian pilgrims could visit holy sites Fourth Crusade ( ): Another attempt to recapture Jerusalem, never made it there; knights looted Constantinople instead

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45 THE CRUSADES EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES INCLUDE: No lasting territorial gains for Christians in the Holy Land Women had more opportunities (why?) Merchants expanded trade with SW Asia- desire for Eastern goods Spread disease Failure of later crusades lessened the power of the pope Increased the power of kings (why?) Increased military spending Interaction with Byzantines and Muslims sparked a growth of learning in Europe (incl. Classical Greek and Roman texts) Religious intolerance and prejudice toward Muslims

46 THE CRUSADES In the 1200s, four more Crusades to free the Holy Land were also unsuccessful Religious spirit of the First Crusade dwindled by 1200s SPAIN: Reconquista was the effort to drive out the Muslims (Moors), finally achieved in 1492; Isabella and Ferdinand (Spanish monarchs) used the inquisition to unify Spain under Christianity- heretics were often tortured or killed

47 The Spanish Inquisition

48 QUESTION: During the later Middle Ages, Europe changed dramatically from What were some of those changes?

49 LATER MIDDLE AGES ( ) Changes to medieval Europe from include: Increase in agriculture (warming climate, introduction of the three-field system, and use of horses to pull plows) Increases in trade and finance Growth of towns and cities Population growth

50 LATER MIDDLE AGES ( ) Changes to medieval Europe from include: Increased learning (including renewed interest in classical texts; writers such as Thomas Aquinas sought to prove religious teachings could coexist with classical philosophy) Development of universities (incl. Cambridge, Oxford) Formation of guilds, or organizations of individuals in the same trade that seek to improve the lives of members and the community as well Commercial Revolution: increased availability of various goods and new ways of doing business

51 BLACK DEATH Known as the Black Death, the Bubonic Plague was spread by infected fleas that lived on rats Spread along trade routes QUESTION: WHAT WERE THE EFFECTS OF THE PLAGUE IN EUROPE?

52

53 BLACK DEATH Effects of the plague include: End of the manorial system (feudalism) as serfs left the manor in search of better wages Medieval society was disrupted Church suffered loss of prestige- loss of faith Population fell dramatically Trade declined Nobles resisted peasant demands for higher wages-> peasant revolts Superstition abounded- Jews wrongly blamed

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