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1 Medieval Europe Dark Ages High Middle Ages

2 The German Kingdoms Romans loyal to Rome vs. Germans loyal to local war chiefs Romans speak Latin Germans speak German. German law based on custom: I. few written laws, officials, or taxes. II. German soldiers unpaid, service based on promises, tribal loyalty, and family honor.

3 Kingdom of the Franks Clovis converts to Christianity in 496 in order to gain support from the Pope and the Catholic church Clovis dies in 511, the kingdom is divided up between 4 sons. Kingdoms created office called Mayor of the Palace, to strengthen royal power

4 Carolingian Early 700 s Spain invaded by Muslims from North Africa. Dynasty Mayor of the Palace, Charles The Hammer Martel takes control of Frankish forces and Defeats Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 732

5 Kings of The Franks Charles rules from PePin The ShorT The Tithe of Pepin CharleS The great CHARLEMAGNE /25/800 Crowned by Pope Leo III Holy Roman Emperor Education: Alcuin the Anglo Monk could read, could not write Illumination Bibles

6 Charlemagne promoted Christianity throughout the empire. Strongly supported the missionary work to convert the Saxons. Required all Christians in his kingdom to pay a TITHE of their income.

7 After Charlemagne's death in 814 The kingdom fell into civil war 843 The Treaty of Verdun The Pope divided the kingdom into 3 parts and gave them to Charlemagne s 3 surviving sons

8 The Treaty of Verdun Charlemagne s Kingdom Charles The Bald Western Kingdom Lothar Holy Roman emperor Middle Kingdom Louis The German Eastern Kingdom

9 The Normans 911= Viking raids made life so difficult that the German Kingdoms gave them a portion of the northern Kingdom (France) to the Vikings. This area became known as Normandy and those who live there Normans. Eventually, the Catholic missionaries would convert the Vikings of Normandy to the Catholic faith.

10 Feudal Society Government system of rule by local lords who were bound to a King by ties of loyalty. Feudalism grows out of German custom. It in Based on a mutual exchange of obligations Warriors, Knights, fight for a King, who in turn provides for their needs

11 The Feudal Contract 1. The Lord provided his Vassal a Fief a. The fief could be a few acres of land or hundreds of miles square, depending on the power of the Lord and his vassal 2. In turn. The vassal gives military service and Taxes to his Lord A. Military service usually 40 days a year B. Taxes came from the production of goods from the land. And relief, an annual fee for use of the land (rent).

12 King Pope Lord Bishop Lesser Vassal Knight Priest or Monks

13 Feudalism is a Complicated System In Theory, everyone in the Feudal society had a ruler except the King. In Reality, These Feudal King s power was very limited. They couldn t collect taxes or enforce laws outside their estates. This practice of competing loyalties fragmented power.

14 Feudalism is a Complicated System cont. Feudalism emerged as a result of invasions so Warfare was at the very heart of the system. Among the Nobility, warfare was a way of life Most battles were small, involving a few hundred to a few thousand men Knights were more likely to be captured rather than killed. Medieval warfare involved tough hand-tohand combat, most wounds were fatal

15 Knights= heavily armored soldiers on horses. Feudal Lords built strong stone castles for defense. In order to tell one side from the other Families carried flags with special symbols

16 It is a code of conduct for Knights Chivalry: Combines Christian values w/ the virtues of a warrior Chivalry dictated the rules of warfare 1. you couldn t attack a Knight until he put on his armor 2. Knights protected local peasants

17 The Manor Manorialism is the selfcontained Economic system of the Medieval world. It consist of the lands administered by the Lord, a village, church, and all the surrounding lands. The people who work on the Manor are: Serfs = people tied to the land Peasants= village people not tied to the land

18 Improvements in Agriculture Improvements began between 700 and field system Heavy plow Horseshoe windmill

19 The Medieval Church Influence Importance of Salvation Religious Orders A force for civilization

20 The Medieval Church Two goals of the Medieval Church 1. Convert all non- Christians. 2. Adjust church organization to new world conditions.

21 Church to become an Essential part of Medieval Society 1. Fill royal position with educated Priest. 2. Have church control over large parcels of land. 3. Require church blessings on social ceremonies and contracts.

22 The Importance of Salvation Because life was hard, medieval people found comfort in Christian teachings. Early Christians believe that their earthly life is less important than everlasting life in Heaven The process of getting through this existence is known as Salvation The tools used by the Medieval church to help people w/ salvation were called the sacraments

23 Baptism Communion Conformation Penance Ordination Marriage Extreme unction 7 Sacraments

24 The Churches' Goals The Medieval Church helped to make Christian values an important part of everyday life in Western European culture. The Church worked to care for the poor, educate, and preserve some ancient works. It also rejected any religious teaching different from its own.

25 Establishment of Religious Orders In the early centuries, some men and women believed the best way to serve God was to withdraw from the world. This tradition gave rise to RELIGIOUS ORDERS, groups of monks and nuns that dedicated their lives to God through hard work and solitude.

26 Each Religious Order established Monasteries (for men) and Convents (for women) through out Europe. The first of these Monasteries was that of St. Benedict at Monte Casino in Italy. Benedictine Monks vowed a lifetime of poverty, purity, and absolute obedience to the Abbot.

27 Other Orders Around the 13 th century, two other orders became prominent. A. The Franciscans, started by St. Francis of Assisi B. The Dominicans,created by Dominic a Spanish Priest. Both orders vowed lives of poverty, as well as help the poor and set up schools.

28 Challenges to Church Authority Like its secular counterparts the leadership of the church faced many challenges to its authority. Control of the clergy (priesthood) many priest were corrupted by the wealth they acquired. They became immoral, some sold church offices, a practice called Simony. The Church was also in a constant battle against Heretics.

29 Height of Medieval Civilization In the 11 th and 12 th centuries, warfare slowed the Manorial system became more productive. Greater AG productivity causes increase in population, growth of towns and cities and a revival of trade.

30 Annual Trade fairs Annual Trade fairs were held in centrally located areas. These areas were usually where trade routes crossed. Local land lords encouraged these fairs. a. provided protection for merchants. b. Rented booths and hired money exchangers. c. profited from fees and sales taxes imposed on all transactions.

31 The Growth of Towns As trade increased Some traders established more permanent arrangements. Growth of towns stimulated local economies. Eventually, those who lived in these new towns asked the local lord for a charter to better define their rights and obligations

32 As towns grew so did the nature of the people who lived there. Towns people were neither noble or peasant, These merchants and artisans made up a new middle class. Eventually, towns and sometimes entire areas, became known for special products Because these products carried the honor (good name) of a family, town, or region, towns formed GUILDS, associations of people who do like work, to ensure quality of product

33 Training for a profession was a long and demanding process. apprentice= earned no wages, taken care of by Master, learned the process journeyman= earns a wage, is allowed to perfect his skills master=on his own, masterpiece

34 Trade Guilds Merchants dominated the earliest Guilds. Later artisans set up craft guilds. The Guilds 1. imposed standards of quality 2. provide training 3. set prices and wages, regulate work hours

35 Town Life Typically, towns had a population of between a few hundred and a few thousand. Medieval Towns were: Crowded Dirty Dangerous Thugs Fires Epidemics

36 Education Town Attractions Universities Cultural Events Work

37 Medieval Art/Architecture Romanesque= 10 th -12 th century, attempt to link Roman/Medieval architecture. Heavy in appearance Rounded or slightly pointed arches or vaults Gothic= 12 th -15 th century, Early French style. Very tall, light in appearance. Flying Buttresses Stain Glass Windows Pointed Arches Ribbed Vaults

38 Medieval Literature Latin Vernacular= language of the common person 2 important works 1. The Divine Comedy 2. Canterbury Tales

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