AGE OF FEUDALISM, THE MANOR, THE CATHOLIC CHURCH, THE CRUSADES, THE PLAGUE, AND HUNDRED YEARS WAR

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1 AGE OF FEUDALISM, THE MANOR, THE CATHOLIC CHURCH, THE CRUSADES, THE PLAGUE, AND HUNDRED YEARS WAR

2 CENTRAL GOV T OF ROME FALLS APART FAIRLY QUICKLY NORMAL LIFE DISAPPEARS: LOSS OF SAFETY, SERVICES, LAWS, FOOD, SCHOOL, ARTS, ETC. DISRUPTION OF TRADE CITIES ABANDONED: PEOPLE MOVE TO COUNTRYSIDE DECLINE OF LEARNING

3 GERMAN TRIBES CREATE SMALL KINGDOMS THAT REPLACE ROMAN PROVINCES (GIVE SOME STABILITY) PERSONAL LOYALTY AND FAMILY TIES NOW IMPORTANT TO LIFE CLOVIS 1 ST TO CONVERT TO CHRISTIANITY AND UNITES FRANKS INTO ONE BIG KINGDOM

4 DYNASTY: SERIES OF RULERS FROM A SINGLE FAMILY BATTLE OF TOURS (732) CHARLES MARTEL DEFEATS MUSLIMS: STOPS ISLAM FROM ENTERING EUROPE WORKS WITH POPE AND CHURCH TO INCREASE HIS POLITICAL POWER

5 CREATES EMPIRE GREATER THAN ANCIENT ROME S IN EUROPE CROWNED EMPEROR BY POPE ON CHRISTMAS DAY 800 AD LOOKS LIKE POPES GIVE KINGS POWER WORKS TO LIMIT POWER OF NOBLES, SENT OUT ROYAL AGENTS, & CREATED SCHOOLS

6 HIS 3 GRANDSONS NOT STRONG & FOUGHT = DESTROYING EMPIRE TREATY OF VERDUN (843) BROKE EMPIRE INTO 3 PARTS: FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY THIS BREAKDOWN BROUGHT ON FEUDALISM

7

8 MUSLIMS: MOVE INTO ITALY/SPAIN MAGYARS: HORSEMEN FROM EAST VIKINGS: RAIDERS FROM NORWAY, SWEDEN, AND DENMARK ATTACK FAST IN UNIQUE SHIPS: HOLD 300 WARRIORS, CARRY 20 TONS, FLOAT IN 3 FEET OF WATER LATER = NORSEMEN NORMANS

9 POLITICAL SYSTEM WHERE A LORD GIVES LAND TO VASSAL IN RETURN FOR LOYALTY LAND= KEY TO FEUDALISM along W/ KNIGHTS & HORSE-BASED PROTECTION MANORS: ECONOMIC FARMING VILLAGES THAT SUPPORT FEUDALISM

10 PEASANTS KEY TO SELF- SUPPORTING MANORS: THEY FARM, TEND ANIMALS, MAKE FOOD, BUILD & REPAIR, MAKE GOODS PAY LOTS OF TAXES (W/O $) : TITHE, MILLING, FIREWOOD, MARRIAGE, DEATH, ETC.

11 KNIGHTS TRAINING = 14 YEARS DUTY OF PROTECTION IS 40 DAYS OF FIGHTING YEARLY FOR LORD DUTY TO 3 PEOPLE: GOD, FEUDAL LORD, CHOSEN LADY EXPECTED TO PROTECT WEAK, BUT USUALLY MISTREATED SERFS

12 MONARCH: A SUPREME RULER OF A STATE; USUALLY IS HEREDITARY (passed down in family) Usually a KING OR QUEEN an EMPEROR RULES OVER MANY STATES OR REGIONS & OVER KINGS/QUEENS NOBILITY (also ARISTOCRACY): HEREDITARY CLASS with lots of SPECIAL PRIVILEGES IN EUROPE, ALL NOBILITY IS RELATED COMMONERS = THE REST OF THE PEOPLE PROBLEMS ARISE B/C NOBILITY IS A CONCEPT OF PURER BLOOD THAT HAS NO JUSTIFICATON IN HISTORY OR RELIGION (despite nobility s claims)

13 CHURCH PROVIDES THE ONLY STABLITY AFTER FALL OF ROME CHURCH MOVES INTO CONTROLLING POLITICS AS TIME PASSES (ie. into SECULAR affairs) CANON LAW = CHURCH LAW (APPLIES TO ALL EUROPEANS, EVEN KINGS)

14 CHURCH CONTROLS PATH TO PEOPLES SALVATION THROUGH SACRAMENTS: BAPTISM EUCHARIST MARRIAGE LAST RITES, ETC. GIVES CHURCH A LOT OF POWER

15 POPES AFFECT EUROPEAN POLITICS! EXCOMMUNICATION: REMOVAL OF MEMBERSHIP IN CHURCH: VASSALS FREED FROM DUTIES TO AN EXCOMMUNICATED KING INTERDICT: BANNING OF RELIGIOUS SERVICES AND SACRAMENTS IN A RULER S LAND

16 KINGS WANT TO CONTROL CHURCH THROUGH BISHOPS THEY APPOINT KING HENRY IV STANDS IN SNOW FOR 3 DAYS TIL FORGIVEN BY POPE CONCORDAT OF WORMS 1122 LETS POPE APPOINT BISHOPS W/ KING S APPROVAL SETS STAGE FOR BIG FIGHT

17 TRADE EXPANDS (1000 s) CITIES START TO GROW (1000 s) GOTHIC CATHEDRALS ( s) RISE TO GLORIFY GOD UNIVERSITIES EXPAND (1200 s) RECONQUISTA: LONG FIGHT TO DRIVE MUSLIMS FROM SPAIN: DO SO BY 1400 S

18 CRUSADES BEGAN TO WIN BACK HOLY LAND FROM MUSLIMS (Turks) ONLY 1 ST CRUSADE SUCCESSFUL, BUT DEPLORABLY HORRIFIC MUSLIM LEADER SALADIN TAKES BACK JERUSALEM 1187: FIGHTS RICHARD 3 RD (LION-HEART) EUROPE GETS ACCESS to HOLY LAND (from Saladin)

19 INCREASED POWER OF WOMEN LEFT BEHIND (as men died) OPENED TRADE/IDEAS=EAST-WEST LESSENED POWER OF POPE KINGS POWER WAY UP, NOBLES POWER DOWN (many died off) INCREASED CHRISTIAN/MUSLIM TENSIONS HURT BYZANTINE EMPIRE, JEWS

20 MORE FOOD TO EAT: 3-FIELD SYSTEM & USE OF HORSE = V. IMP. MORE GOODS (of High Quality): GUILDS (think unions ) START TO INFLUENCE CITY POWER TRADE INCREASES: FAIRS AND BANKING SYSTEMS (LETTERS OF CREDIT/EXCHANGE)

21 POPULATION & CITIES INCREASE CITIES GIVE SOCIAL & ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR MANOR SERFS, FREEMEN, & CITY MERCHANTS MANY UNIVERSITIES ARE BUILT LEARNING REVIVES: GREEKS, ROMANS, JEWS, MUSLIMS READ AGAIN

22 BATTLE OF HASTINGS 1066: WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR STARTS CENTRALIZED GOV T. IN ENGLAND BY CHANGING FEUDAL LOYALTY HENRY II: CREATES JURY SYSTEM; HIS ROYAL JUDGES DECIDE CASES, COLLECT TAXES COMMON LAW DEVELOPS FROM COURT CASES

23 MAGNA CARTA 1215: NOBLES FORCE ENGLISH KING JOHN I TO ACCEPT DUE PROCESS OF LAW (BASIC POLITICAL RIGHTS) MODEL PARLIAMENT: LEGISLATIVE GROUP FORMED THAT INCLUDED COMMONERS W/ NOBLES (MOVE TO DEMOCRACY)

24 FRENCH KING PHILLIP II: ROYAL AGENTS (BAILIFFS) COLLECT TAXES AND CONTROL COURTS ESTATES-GENERAL (LIKE U.S. CONGRESS) ADDS COMMONERS LATE 1200 S (WON T DEVELOP REAL POWER FOR 500 YEARS)

25 GREAT SCHISM : STARTS WHEN KING OF FRANCE HELPS ELECT A POPE AND FORCES HIM TO LIVE IN FRANCE TO CONTROL HIM SOON 3 POPES ON SCENE GERMAN EMPEROR AND CHURCH FORCE 3 POPES OUT 1 POPE FINALLY ELECTED

26 PRIESTS MARRY; HAVE FAMILIES GREAT WEALTH OF CHURCH SIMONY: Church offices are bought and sold to make money BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY: Popes live in France for ~ 70 years. GREAT SCHISM: 3 Popes exist at same time until H.R. Emperor solves issue CRUSADES: Become corrupted w/ non- Christian values

27 CARRIED BY RAT FLEAS FROM MONGOLIA INTO CHINA FOLLOWS TRADE ROUTES COVERS EUROPE BY 1351 PAINFUL DEATH IN 3-4 DAYS RETURNS TO EUROPE EVERY 3-4 YEARS BUT NOT AS DEVASTATING AS 1347

28 KILLS ~ 1/3 OF EUROPE (25 MILLION) CITIES DEPOPULATED TRADE DECLINES; INFLATION! SERFS AND PEASANTS REVOLT, GET BETTER WAGES CHURCH LOSES PRESTIGE AND POWER JEWS PERSECUTED

29 ENGLAND FIGHTS FRANCE OVER CLAIM TO THRONE ENGLISH LONGBOW CHALLENGES FRENCH CHIVALRY & WINS JOAN OF ARC turns tide; France WINS Effect of 100 Years War: Kings viewed as a national leader, not just a feudal lord; beginnings of nationalism

30 THE POWER OF THE CHURCH HURT BY GREAT SCHISM, BUBONIC PLAGUE, CRUSADES, & HUGE DISPLAY OF WEALTH FEUDALISM & AGE OF CHIVALRY destroyed by longbow & prosperity MODERN EUROPE WAS ABOUT TO BEGIN

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