Review: Early Middle Ages

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1 Review: Early Middle Ages Catholic Church pope Monasticism Charlemagne Feudalism or Manorialism Lords (nobles) Knights (vassals) Serfs/peasants code of chivalry Emperor Justinian Eastern (Greek) Orthodox Church The Crusades

2 I. The High Middle Ages: Population increased due to new agricultural techniques. (How does one lead to the other?)

3 1. The three field system improved crop yield (amount produced per person). In any given year, one field would lie fallow, keeping the soil fertile.

4 2. Serfs - Most peasants who worked the land were serfs. Serfs were legally tied to the land. They owed the lord their service.

5 What group goes here? What was its role in feudalism? What group goes here? What group goes here? What was its role in feudalism? What was its role in feudalism? What group goes here? What were they supposed to follow as a code of conduct? What was its role in feudalism? What agricultural technique led to an increase in population? Why?

6 During the early Middle Ages ( ), people bartered they traded goods. Money was scarce. During the High Middle Ages: 1. Trade increased 2. Northern Europe developed economically 3. Banking developed 4. People began to invest in business and trade 5. Navigation and shipping improved These developments were the Commercial Revolution.

7 In the late 1300s, Italian city-states, such as Venice, began to flourish as a result of trade. Medieval Trade Routes developed during the High Middle Ages

8 Flanders, in present day Belgium, became an important trading center in Northern Europe. The weavers of Flanders made woolen cloth from English wool.

9 The Hanseatic League A commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds market towns that dominated trade in Northern Europe

10 The Guilds were associations that controlled for almost every craft. They set up standards for quality, methods of production, and prices. Examples of Guilds: Carpenters Painters Bakers Cobblers Tailor s guild sign

11 Levels in a guild 1) Apprentice young man learning the trade 2) Journeyman worked for masters 3) Master full member of the guild

12 The Church gains in power by the 1200 s: Lay investiture (where lords, not the church, appointed bishops) was ended New church orders began, such as the Franciscans Saints were considered powerful protectors of the people Christians made pilgrimages (e.g. Rome and Santiago de Compostela)

13 The Inquisition prosecuted heretics (those who deny Church teaching). Penalties included public penance, flogging, and execution.

14 Architecture - In the 12 th century, Gothic architecture emerged. This represented a shift from Romanesque churches. Notre-Dame de Reims, France

15

16 The church loses power In the 1300 s, the papacy lost power. Another Great Schism: there were TWO popes, one at Rome, one at Avignon (France), Some called for end to corruption and too much power in the papacy

17 The Black Death From , a plague, or pandemic disease, killed 1/3 of Europe. AKA: Black Plague, Bubonic Plague

18 The Black Death spread from the Middle East along trade routes to Northern Europe. It was carried by rats and fleas. This is disease diffusion.

19 The Black Death (no notes) Father abandoned child, wife husband, one brother another, for the plague seemed to strike through breath and sight. And so they died. And no one could be found to bury the dead, for money or friendship.

20 The drastic decline in population led to Social change: Anti-Semitism arose as Jews were blamed Peasants revolted Death became a preoccupation in art Economic change: Labor shortages Feudalism declined as peasants could bargain for wages A decline in trade

21 Kingdoms Develop in England, Spain, France

22 The Hundred Years War Was a struggle between England and France, Henry V (England) seized most of northern France England had better archers and used the longbow Joan of Arc (France) helped French to victory at Orleans The French finally defeated the English in Normandy and Aquitaine

23 Results of the war The war led to feelings of national unity French and English kings gained power over the nobility (lords) Private wars between lords were banned Kings began to tax people directly

24 Aragon and Castile were strong Christian kingdoms in the Iberian peninsula In 1469, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon married, uniting the kingdoms Spain

25 In 1492, the Muslim state of Granada was defeated by Ferdinand and Isabella. This was the Reconquista. The reconquest meant that Christians controlled the entire Peninsula for the first time in 800 years In 1492, the Jews were expelled and Muslims had to convert or leave the kingdoms Spain

26 The Holy Roman Empire In central Europe, there were hundreds of small states They were united under a weak Holy Roman Emperor The Hapsburg dynasty gained control of the imperial seat in 1483 Unlike in England, France, and Spain, the H.R.E. was a weak state

27 Universities Universities are centers of learning and teaching Universities were first founded during the High Middle Ages Prominent universities were founded in Paris, England (Oxford) and in several Italian cities Universities were and are important in transmitting and creating knowledge

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