WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact

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1 WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and Russia from about 300 to 1000 A.D. by a) explaining the establishment of Constantinople as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire; b) identifying Justinian and his contributions, including the codification of Roman law, and describing the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and economy; c) characterizing Byzantine art and architecture and the preservation of Greek and Roman traditions; d) explaining disputes that led to the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church; e) assessing the impact of Byzantine influence and trade on Russia and Eastern Europe. Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 121

2 Essential Understandings of Byzantines and Russians Interact 1. The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was changed to Constantinople to provide political, economic, and military advantages. 2. As the first to codify Roman law, Justinian provided the basis for the law codes of Western Europe. 3. Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture and prosperity Greek Orthodox Christianity and imperial patronage enabled the Byzantine Empire to develop a unique 4. style of art and architecture. 5. Greek and Roman traditions were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. 6. The cultural and political differences between the eastern and western Roman Empire weakened the unity of the Christian Church and led to its division. 7. Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and Eastern European civilizations through its religion, culture, and trade. Essential Questions about Byzantines and Russians Interact 1. Why was Constantinople established as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire? 2. What was the influence of Justinian s codification of Roman law on the Byzantine Empire and later legal codes? 3. What was Justinian s influence on the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and its economy? 4. What were the contributions of Byzantine art and architecture? 5. How did Greek and Roman culture survive within the Byzantine Empire? 6. What factors produced the division within the Christian Church? 7. Why did the Byzantine Empire have so much influence on religion, culture, and trade in Russia and Eastern Europe? Why do I need to know this? 1. Byzantine culture deeply influenced Orthodox Christianity, a major branch of modern Christianity. 2. The early history of Russia separated it from the West, causing mutual misunderstandings that still exist today. Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 122

3 Byzantine Foundations Constantinople Reasons Constantinople is a great location for the Capitol of the Byzantine Empire 1. located far away enough from the Germanic invasions of the West 2. was a crossroads of trade on the Bosporus Strait 3. could protect the rich Eastern provinces more easily 4. easily protected Cultural Blend 1. mostly Greek, but the emperor and noble families were Roman and spoke Latin 2. Christianity morphed into Eastern Orthodoxy 3. heavily influenced by Persia the Emperors 1. the emperors had Absolute Power 2. head of state and of the Church 3. lived with fear of assassination (29 of 88 died violently 13 abandoned the throne for the monastery) Theodora Emperor Justinian Theodora Strong Woman 1. Justinian s wife married her in spite of objections AD, Theodora kept Justinian from fleeing during the Nika Rebellion a. 30,000 people were killed 3. Helped oversee the reconstruction of Constantinople after the Nika Rebellion 4. Expanded women s rights Military Campaigns 1. Italy, North Africa, and Spain a. general Belisarius strengthened and reorganized the army b fought a series of wars and won; reconquered old western Roman lands 2. conquests did not last and empire lost many of its territories Justinian s Accomplishments 1. the Justinian Code four-part work that simplified the law code of the Byzantine Empire (cut out 66% of the original law code) a. decided issues such as marriage, slavery, property, women s rights and crimes b. served the Byzantine Empire for 900 years c. became the basis for law codes in Europe Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 123

4 Roman Catholic v. Eastern Orthodox Directions: Using page 273 of the textbook, fill in the following chart comparing/contrasting the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches. Then answer the questions at the bottom of the page. Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox Language 1. services were in Latin 1. services were in Greek or local languages Head of the Churches 2. Pope had authority over all bishops 2. patriarch and bishops headed the church as a group Ultimate Authority 3. Pope claims authority over kings and emperors 3. the emperor claims authority over the patriarch and bishops Clergy and Marriage 4. priests may not marry 4. priests may marry Divorce 5. divorce is not permitted 5. divorce is allowed under certain conditions 1. Which church seemed to allow for greater diversity among its members? Why? 2. Who would have more political power: the pope or the patriarch? How do you know? Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 124

5 Emperor Justinian Justinian s Accomplishments continued 2. Justinian had the fortifications of Constantinople repaired a. 14 mile stone wall that surrounded Constantinople on the three sides that faced water b. three walls on the land side biggest one was 25 feet thick with towers 70 feet tall 3. Hagia Sophia in Constantinople a. beautiful church that was the pinnacle of Justinian s building program 4. Justinian also built aqueducts, law courts, schools, and hospitals a. mosaics decorated churches as well as government buildings b. the libraries preserved Greek and Roman knowledge 5. Justinian expanded trade and made Constantinople very wealthy Byzantine Religion Church and State 1. emperors were crowned by the patriarch (bishop of Constantinople) 2. sometimes persecuted Jews and non-greek Christians Use of Icons 1. Byzantine Empire worshipped icons (religious images) until 730 when emperor Leo III ordered all icons removed from churches a. iconoclasts broke into churches to destroy icons 2. resistors were supported by Church of Rome which approved of using icons in religious ceremonies 3. the pope supported the use of icons and excommunicated the emperor Conflict with Rome 1. Germanic Lombards invaded Italy and Byzantine emperor refused to help 2. pope turned to Germanic Franks (who had converted to Christianity in 496)for help, crowned Charlemagne as emperor; title only a Byzantine ruler could grant schism(division of the churches); Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Byzantines Missionaries Convert the Slavs 1. the Catholics and Orthodox began competing for souls 2. monasteries and convents were established 3. Cyril and Methodius were missionaries who translated Bible a. created the Cyrillic alphabet so that Slavs could read the Bible and would accept Christianity Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 125

6 Map of the Byzantine Empire and Kievan Rus Byzantine Empire 565 A.D. Kievan Russia 1100 A.D. Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 126

7 The Plague Decline and Fall of the Byzantine Empire 1. first recorded outbreak of the Bubonic Plague struck the early 500s 2. probably spread from rats from a trade ship from India 3. resurfaced every 8 to 12 years until the 700s 4. nearly wiped out 50% of the population of the Byzantine population Military attacks 1 began facing constant attacks from all sides 2 by 700 only Greek areas were left Fall of Constantinople 1. Ottoman Turks took Asia Minor 2. late 1300s only Constantinople and immediate area left a. its walls, fleet and location helped it hold out Ottoman Turks took Constantinople, renamed it Istanbul Russians Adapt Byzantine Culture Land of Russia s Birth 1. Slavs people from the forests north of the Black Sea , Rurik founded Novgorod 3. Oleg moved south to Kiev and began a principality 4. boyars Russian nobles Kiev Becomes Orthodox 1. Russia was in constant contact with the Byzantine Empire through trade routes that ran from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Kievan Princess Olga paid a visit to Constantinople and converted to Christianity (Eastern Orthodox) Olga s grandson, Vladimir converted to Christianity (Eastern Orthodox) and made all people in Kiev convert also Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 127

8 Analyzing Justinian s Code In A.D. 528 the Emperor Justinian began a review of the old Roman laws. There were thousands of Roman laws that ordered life in the empire. The emperor chose ten men to review 1,600 books full of Roman Law and create a simpler legal code. These men were able to create the Justinian Code with just over 4,000 laws. Read these two laws from the Justinian Code. Think about what they tell you about the Roman and Byzantine empires. Answer the questions that follow the samples. Book I, Of Persons VIII. Slaves 1. Slaves are in the power of masters, a power derived from the law of nations: for among all nations it may be remarked that masters have the power of life and death over their slaves, and that everything acquired by the slave is acquired for the master. Book II, Of Things I. Division of Things 28. If the wheat of Titus is mixed with yours, when this takes place by mutual consent, the mixed heap belongs to you in common because each body, that is, each grain, which before was the property of one or other of you, has by your mutual consent been made your common property; but, if the intermixture were accidental, or made by Titus without your consent, the mixed wheat does not then belong to you both in common; because the grains still remain distinct, and retain their proper substance....if either of you keep the whole quantity of mixed wheat, the other has a real actio [claim or suit] for the amount of wheat belonging to him, but it is in the province of the judge to estimate the quality of the wheat belonging to each. 1. The Justinian Code has four different parts called books. What books do you see here? 2. What does the first sample tell you about slavery in both empires? How do you think slaves were treated? 3. Review Law Number 28. Under this law, what happens if someone takes your property without your permission? How do you think this law helped the government maintain order? 4. Why do you think it was important for the Roman and Byzantine empires to have extensive legal code? Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 128

9 Kiev Mongol Invasions Favor the Rise of Moscow Khanate of the Golden Horde , the Mongols demolished Kiev 2. ruled Russia for 200 years and called it the Khanate of the Golden Horde 3. allowed Russians to follow their usual customs as long as they made no signs of rebellion 4. Mongols demanded just two things from the Russians, slave-like obedience and massive amounts of tribute 5. Russia was cut off from Western Europe during this time Mongol Rule Serves Moscow s Interests 1. Mongol rule helped unify Russia 2. Moscow began as a crude village a. located near three rivers Volga, Dnieper and Don b. could lead to control of all of European Russia Ivan the Great Ivan III (Ivan the Great) 1. wanted to make Russia the Third Rome 2. adopted the title of czar (tsar) the Russian form of Caesar , refused to pay tribute to the Mongols 4. helped Russia became independent from the Mongols Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 129

10 Summary DIRECTIONS: Choose one of the following: a) write a summary (25-75 words) of what you believe was the most important aspect of the notes/lecture b) write what you believe to be the most interesting or memorable part of the notes/lecture (25-75 words) c) draw something that symbolizes the notes/lecture to you (has to be different than your title page) Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 130

11 Name: WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact DIRECTIONS: Check the agenda slide for the bellringer at the beginning of class and the closer at the end of class. You do not have to copy down the question, but you do have to write in complete sentences. If you are absent on a day we do a bellringer and closer, please write in the word ABSENT for that day. Date: Bellringers Closing Activity Date: Date: Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 131

12 Name: WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact DIRECTIONS: Check the agenda slide for the bellringer at the beginning of class and the closer at the end of class. You do not have to copy down the question, but you do have to write in complete sentences. If you are absent on a day we do a bellringer and closer, please write in the word ABSENT for that day. Date: Bellringers Closing Activity Date: Date: Notes WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact 132

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