The Fall of Rome: The Darkness Begins

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1 The Fall of Rome: The Darkness Begins 1. What happened to Rome in 410 AD? 2. Why would this sack of Rome be physiologically crushing to the Romans? 3. Who is Alaric? 4. What are Alaric and his Visigoths looking for when they lay siege to Rome? Describe what happens in Rome during Alaric s siege. 6. What had Rome done to the Visigoths and other Germanic peoples that had so angered the Germanic tribes to the point of rebellion? 7. For seven centuries the dark ages would be an age of: a) b) c) d) 8. Describe how society began to crumble? Dark Ages Reflection: Describe what it would be like to live in a world where once had existed a great civilization that was now gone and yet the evidence of that civilization lay all around you? (This is to be done on loose leaf)

2 The Christian Warlords: New World Disorder 1. What was the one unifying force throughout Europe during the dark ages? 2. What happened on Christmas day, 496 A.D. in France? 3. Why was Christianity so attractive to the people of Dark Ages Europe? 4. Clovis wars of conquest became more than territorial plunders they could now be justified as this:. 5. How did Clovis begin to take control of the land that would become France? 6. Describe the trials of ordeal and why the people of the Dark Ages of Europe believe it worked. Dark Ages Reflection: How do you account for the fact that leaders such as Clovis would convert to Christianity and yet be so incredibly violent? (This is to be done on loose leaf)

3 The Byzantines: The Empire Strikes Back 1. Why did the divide of the Roman Empire leave the Western Empire at a disadvantage? 2. Describe some of the things Emperor Justinian would do to obtain and keep as much money as possible? 3. What was the ultimate result of Justinian s corruption that almost forced him into exile? 4. Describe Justinian s wife Theodora. 5. How did Theodora inspire Justinian to save his empire? 6. What did the Byzantine campaign do to the Italian countryside? 7. Describe Hagia Sofia? 8. What would derail the dream of a reunited Roman Empire? 9. Describe the plague that would derail the dream of a reunited Roman Empire. 10. What effect did the plague have on Justinian? 11. How many people would die in the Byzantium Empire from the plague of Justinian? 12. How did the plague create a situation in Europe that would make it very difficult to come out of? Dark Ages Reflection: Though Justinian s attempts to resurrect the Roman Empire by conquering Italy, Rome, and the west could have potentially brought Western Europe out of the Dark Ages they in fact had the opposite effect pushing Italy in particular further into Darkness. Explain how this was so. (This is to be done on loose leaf)

4 Monasteries and Lonely Villages: Isolation in the Dark Ages 1. What would Western Europe s economy be dependent on during the Dark Ages?. When was the last time Europe had dependent on these things? 2. Describe the work pattern in Western Europe during the Dark Ages. 3. What effect would the lack of trade have on European societies during the beginning of the Dark Ages? 4. Why did monasteries become so important to Europe during the Dark Ages? 5. Explain the importance of St. Benedict. 6. Describe the rule of St. Benedict. 7. What were two reasons people flocked to the monasteries? What new religion would arise in the east that would challenge Christianity? Dark Ages Reflection: If you could eliminate the will you could eliminate the desire to sin. What else do you believe would be eliminated in people when they eliminated their will? How could this benefit those in power? (This is to be done on loose leaf)

5 Rise of the Carolingians: A Spark of Light for Christian Europe 1. Why had the Moors come to France? 2. Who was the commander of the Frankish army? 3. How did Charles Martel get the money he needed to train his army of farmers? 4. What was significant about the Frankish win at the battle of Tours? 5. Who was Charles Martel s grandson and the father of Europe? 6. What does he do for Europe? 7. What modern day countries would he come to rule? What has changed between the Roman Empire and the new Holy Roman Empire under Charlemagne? 9. How did Charlemagne spread Christianity throughout northern Europe? 10. What are some of the things you could do that would get you executed during the reign of Charlemagne? 11. What things did Charlemagne do to try and bring back a culture of creativity in Europe? 12. What new threat emerged that threaten to drag Charlemagne s Europe back into the Dark Ages? Dark Ages Reflection: What statement was the Pope trying to make about the Church s power when he crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor? Why might Charlemagne not be happy about this? (This is to be done on loose leaf)

6 The Vikings: Descent back into Darkness 1. What drove the young men out of Scandinavia and what were they looking for? 2. Why were the monasteries such attractive targets for the Vikings? 3. What was remarkable about the Viking s ships that allowed them to attack many different places? 4. Why were the British- Isles the favorite target of the Vikings? 5. What was the great heathen army and why were they named this? 6. Which northern English town was conquered by the Vikings? 7. How did King Alfred bring down the great heathen army of the Vikings? Dark Ages Reflection: Why do you believe the Vikings were so successful and deadly to Christian Europe and how did they keep Western Europe from emerging from the Dark Ages during their reign of terror? (This is to be done on loose leaf)

7 Knights: Medieval Gangsters 1. Describe the nature of the Knight during the Dark Ages and how were they used? 2. Who were the Lords during the Dark Ages of Europe? 3. How did the church try and control these Lords and Knights? 4. What is the peace of God? 5. What is the truce of God? 6. In what direction did the bishops of the church attempt to turn the Knights of Europe? 7. What was the most valuable thing the Knights would bring back from the Middle- East during the time of the crusades? 8. What began to change in Europe as a result of this knowledge? 9. What was the mini- ice age and how did its end help bring Europe out of the Dark Ages? Dark Ages Reflection: Today we have a very different idea of what a knight was. Explain this difference between the real knight from history and the romantic knight in popular culture. (This is to be done on loose leaf)

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