The Crusades THEY WERE A SERIES OF RELIGIOUS WARS BETWEEN CHRISTIANS AND MUSLIMS FOUGHT BETWEEN THE 11 TH TO 13 TH CENTURIES.

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1 The Crusades

2 The Crusades WHAT WERE THEY? THEY WERE A SERIES OF RELIGIOUS WARS BETWEEN CHRISTIANS AND MUSLIMS FOUGHT BETWEEN THE 11 TH TO 13 TH CENTURIES. THESE WARS WERE BEGUN BY CHRISTIANS AND CAUSED THOUSANDS OF DEATHS

3 Origins Remember, Jerusalem is important to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Hebrews began the Jewish religion there Christians began following Jesus there Mohammad journeyed to heaven and back there

4 Origins In the 11 th century the holy city of Jerusalem was controlled by the Muslims. They also allowed Christians and Jews to live in sections of the city

5 Origins In the 11 th century the holy city of Jerusalem was controlled by the Muslims.

6

7 Origins In the 11 th century the holy city of Jerusalem was controlled by the Muslims.

8 Origins Pope Urban called for a religious war or crusade to gain control of the Holy Lands.

9 Origins Many Christian nobles and knights (Crusaders) heeded Urban s call.

10 The Fighting The European knights were ill prepared to fight in the scorching deserts of the Middle East. One Crusading army decided to skip fighting the Muslims and sacked (raided) the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. The two main leaders were Richard the Lionhearted of England (Crusader) and Saladin (Muslim).

11 The battles between the two forces were exceptionally bloody.

12 The battles between the two forces were exceptionally bloody. The Crusaders briefly captured Jerusalem and a few small kingdoms nearby which became known as the Crusader states. Eventually Saladin (and the Muslims) recaptured Jerusalem. Both Saladin and Richard agreed to a truce.

13 The Results Jerusalem remained under Muslim control. Eventually the Crusades sort of fizzled out as fewer and fewer knights took up the challenge. The death of so many nobles led to the decline of local lords and the rise of powerful monarchs. It also weakened the power of the Pope.

14 BUT- Returning knights brought back valuable spices and other goods from the Middle East. This led to an increase in trade between Europe and Asia.

15 The Crusader s attack on Constantinople weakened the Byzantine Empire which the Muslims finally captured in The Crusades left a lasting legacy of bitterness between Jews, Muslims, and Christians.

16 Today Jerusalem is still the scene of religious violence.

17 Constantinople

18 Constantinople The Muslims living in the area of Turkey were known as the Ottoman Turks In 1453 the Ottoman Turks attacked and conquered Constantinople They changed the name to Istanbul and it became the capital of the Ottoman Empire

19 Meanwhile on the battlefields of Asia

20 The Mongols In Mongolia (East Asia) in the 1200s several nomadic tribes joined together under one leader Genghis Khan

21 The Mongols Genghis Khan united many of the Mongol tribes He and his descendants used extreme military tactics to conquer much of Russia, China, and Southwest Asia They destroyed the cities and the countryside

22

23 The Mongols This was known as the Mongol Empire

24

25 Black Death Bubonic Plague

26 A new disease appeared in the world which caused gangrene of the extremities, chills, fever, cramps, seizures, pain, and soon, DEATH

27

28 Sanitary issues: they couldn t keep up with the growing populations No plumbing, running water, toilets Used chamber pots, cesspools Water was contaminated

29 No one understood it spread by the fleas on rats. The rats spread with trade as one shipment moved between areas the rats went along for the ride.

30 In the fourteenth century, the Black Death (Bubonic plague) decimated the population of much of Asia and then the population of much of Europe.

31

32

33 About 25 million people died from the plague. That was about 1/3 of the world s population

34 About 25 million people died from the plague. That was about 1/3 of the world s population

35 About 25 million people died from the plague. That was about 1/3 of the world s population

36 Impacts of the Plague The world population declines greatly This leads to a labor shortage Towns were released from feudal obligations (they weren t tied to the nobles as much) The influence the church had over people s lives declined Trade was disrupted for a long time

37

38

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