Chapter 9: Section 1 Main Ideas Main Idea #1: Byzantine Empire was created when the Roman Empire split, and the Eastern half became the Byzantine

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1 Chapter 9: Section 1 Main Ideas Main Idea #1: Byzantine Empire was created when the Roman Empire split, and the Eastern half became the Byzantine Empire Main Idea #2: The split (Great Schism) was over several ideology issues, and created Roman Christianity = Roman Catholic Church Byzantine Empire = Greek / Orthodox Christianity Main Idea #3: Eventually the Byzantine Empire fell to the Ottoman Turks (Muslims), and the Ottoman Empire was created

2 Section 1: The Byzantine Empire was the crossroads of land and sea trade routes, and at the center was Constantinople Constantine Creates a New Rome called Byzantium, and Constantinople was the capital city; The Byzantine Empire included the Balkans to Middle East to North Africa Constantinople Grows and commanded key trade routes linking Europe w/ Asia

3 Byzantium Flourishes Under Justinian recovering N. Africa, Italy, and Iberian Peninsula The Great City is Rebuilt following riots and a fire in 532 (church of Hagia Sophia built) Justinian s Code Has Far-Reaching Effects as the ancient laws of Rome were collected, revised / organized Justinian Rules With Absolute Power as an autocrat or sole ruler with complete authority, including the power over the church Economic and Military Strength Is Second to None Military s strength was its diversity (soldiers, ships, fortifications, Greek fire) The Empire s Fortunes Change and decline as attacks came from Slavs, Persians, Vikings, Huns, and Turks were unsuccessful, but took their toll

4 Byzantine Christianity was different than Catholicism, causing friction between East and West East and West Differ East: government leader appointed the patriarch (highest church official), eastern priests could marry, Greek was spoken, and the east put less emphasis on the birth of Jesus The Church Divides over icons as the Byzantine Emperor outlawed the veneration of icons (Jesus and Virgin Mary, and the saints) for a time The Great Schism or split occurred: Byzantine church became known as the Eastern (or Greek Orthodox Church) and the Western branch became known as the Roman Catholic Church (pope)

5 Roman Catholic Church/Romans & Greek Orthodox Church/Byzantines Roman Empire & Roman Catholic Church Similarities Between the Roman Catholic Church (Romans) And the Greek Orthodox Church (Byzantines) Byzantine Empire & Greek Orthodox Church

6 The Byzantine Empire Suffers Crisis and Collapse as succession, court intrigues, constant wars, and invasions by the Seljuk Turks (Muslims) took its toll The Crusades Lead to Plunder during the Fourth Crusade as Catholics looted, pillaged, and burned Constantinople Constantinople Falls to the Turks (Ottomans / Islam) and renamed the city Istanbul and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire

7 The Byzantine Heritage was built on the Hellenistic world; Blended Christian religious beliefs with Greek science, philosophy, arts, and literature; The Ottoman conquerors adopted features of Byzantine government, social life, and architecture The World of Learning in the Byzantine Empire preserved Greek and Roman classics, added to literature

8 Timeline Create a timeline of the major events in Russia from the 700s to 1613

9 1. Make a claim about the topic 2. Identify supports for your claim 3. Ask a question related to your claim

10 Chapter 9: Section 2 Main Ideas Main Idea #1: Prince Rurik organizes and creates Rus (where we get Russia), and Kiev becomes the capital of Rus Main Idea #2: Early Rus consisted of 3 main groups (Slavs, Vikings, and Mongols) Main Idea #3: Ivan the Great & Ivan the Terrible (grandson) established Tsarist rule / absolute power, and made Moscow the capital of Russia

11 Section2:The Rise of Russia was shaped by its geography connecting Europe with Asia Geography s Influence in Russia mostly deals with the vast Eurasian plain (Europe to the boarders of China), which include the Ural Mountains Three Regions: Northern Forests, Southern Steppe, and fertile land to the south

12 Kiev Grows Strong as it was the first Russian state through the mixing of two distinct peoples Vikings Settle Among Slavs living in small farming villages, trading along the rivers between the Baltic and the Black Seas Russia was born when Rurik, a prince of a Varangian tribe, referred to the region as Rus in 862 The Byzantines Gain Influence through trade and missionaries (translated the bible into Slavic tongue Cyrillic), and spread the religion making Orthodox the religion of Rus

13 The Mongols Rule Russia as Genghis Khan or World Emperor united Mongols of Central Asia The Golden Horde Advances ( ) as Batu Khan (grandson of Genghis) and the Golden Horde (due to color of tents) moved into Russia and ruled for 150 years Mongols did not mess with daily life, but only wanted tribute to be paid The Mongols Exert Influence by converting to Islam, but allowing Russian Orthodox; Brought peace between China and Eastern Europe; Merchants benefited through trade; The absolute power of the Mongols served as a model for Russian rulers

14 Moscow Takes the Lead as trade flowed through on the river, tribute was taken, and the Orthodox Church made its capital Moscow (political and religious center), and the Mongols were defeated The Success of Ivan the Great (Ivan III 1462 and 1505) built the framework of absolute rule (but showed compassion for his people): limited the power of the Boyers (landowning nobles), married a niece of the last Byzantine emperor, and referred to himself as tsar (Russian word for Caesar), established Moscow as capital Ivan the Terrible (grandson of Ivan the Great) Establishes Absolute Rule (first crowned tsar), and made new laws implementing serfdom Ivan became increasingly unstable, trusted no one, had fits of rage (even killed his own son), and created the oprichniki (agents of terror)

15 Chapter 9: Section 3 Main Ideas Main Idea #1: Eastern Europe consisted of 4 major religions Main Idea #2: Eastern Europe consisted of 9+ ethnic groups Main Idea #3: All 3 Eastern European kingdoms (Poland, Hungary, and Serbia) failed / struggled

16 Section 3: Shaping Eastern Europe occurred through migration, foreign conquest, war/revolution Geography Shapes Eastern Europe from the Baltic Sea, sown across the plains of Poland and Hungary, and then through the mountainous Balkan Peninsula; main rivers are the Danube and Vistula which flow into the Black Sea or in the Baltic Sea

17 Migrations Contribute to Diversity as it was easy for people to migrate, and now includes a wealth of languages and cultures Ethnic Groups Settle in Eastern Europe beginning with multiple Slavic cultures; Asian groups migrated into Eastern Europe (Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, and Magyars), Vikings, and Germanic tribes migrated as well Christians and Muslims Influence the Region spreading Eastern Orthodox Christianity to the Balkans, German knights and missionaries from west brought Roman Catholic Christianity to Poland, Hungary, and Czech area; Ottomans invaded bringing Islam into pockets of that same region Jewish Settlers Migrate to Poland after being expelled from western Europe after Prince Cracow offered protection to Jews in Poland So the 4 major religions that originated in the region now known as Eastern Europe were.

18

19 Three Early Kingdoms Develop: Poland, Hungary, and Serbia Poland Enjoys Greatness as Catholicism is practiced; battled Germans, Russians, and Mongols; eventually the central government fell so did Poland and Lithuania The Magyars Rule Hungary adopting Roman Catholicism; Mongols overran Hungary in 1241 (killing half the population); Ottoman Turks took over the land in 1526 The Serbs Establish a Balkan Kingdom (ancestors of the South Slavs), accepted Orthodox Christianity, and Serbs were taken over by the Ottoman Turks

20 Causes of Diversity Web

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