The Worlds of European Christendom. Chapter 9

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1 The Worlds of European Christendom Chapter 9

2 After the Roman Empire By the 4 th Century the Roman Empire gets divided Christian Europe is two parts: 1. Eastern half = The Byzantine Empire 2. Western half = Latin Christendom

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4 The Byzantine Empire Mostly located in the Eastern Mediterranean basin Capital = Constantinople Gradually evolved into a distinctive civilization Eastern Orthodox Christianity

5 The Byzantines looked to Rome as a source of inspiration Continued the Roman practices of: Road building Tax systems Military structures Centralized government Laws Christian church As an empire it was MUCH smaller than Rome

6 In Byzantium the emperor was the head of the Empire as well as head of the church Known as caesaropapism Emperor was God s representative on earth and the absolute ruler

7 Byzantium and the World Often at war with the Persians Greek Fire sort of like a flamethrower Helped them hold off the Islamic empires Major trade center during this period Commercial links to China, Western Europe, Russia, and Central Asia The empire also produced luxury goods such as silk and jewelry Culturally significant Preserved and spread ancient Greek learning to Islamic and European lands

8 The Conversion of Russia Kievan Rus culturally diverse region Becomes an important region due to trade between the Byzantine Empire and Scandinavia In the 10 th Century Prince Vladimir of Kiev decided to affiliate himself the Orthodox church Made the decision freely after considering Islam, Judaism, and Catholicism

9 Orthodox Vs. Catholicism Both believed in: Jesus The Bible Sacraments Church Hierarchy (bishops, priests, etc) Intolerance towards other religions

10 Icons Greek for picture or likeness

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13 1. What does this icon portray about the spiritual journey? 2. What sources of help are available for the monks on the ladder? 3. What message might the monks have taken from this image?

14 Western Christendom

15 Politics and Society War and disease reduced the population of Europe by 25% Cities in particular declined people move back to the country Rome goes from 1,000,000 citizens to 10,000 by 900 C.E. Politically, Europe was a collection of regional kingdoms Feudalism emerges Independent, self-sufficient and isolated estates owned by warrior elites Peasants called SERFS lived on these estates NOT slaves but they exchanged labor/services with the lord of the estate for protection/safety In the absence of Roman authority it was the only source of security available to many people Ties to family, estate, and lord were the primary source of loyalty

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18 The West from From western Europe was under constant threat of invasion Muslims in Spain, Hungarians (Magyars), Vikings By 1000 the invasions had stopped Stability = Positive Change Also the climate of Europe warmed so agricultural output increased

19 Population doubled from Also increased long distance trade which had almost disappeared with the fall of the Roman Empire

20 Two major trading networks 1. Northern Europe to the Baltic Coast Wood, furs, wheat, salt, cloth, wine 2. Northern Italy Florence, Genoa, and Venice traded with Islamic and Byzantine civilizations

21 Politics Minor monarchs in Europe began to consolidate their authority France England Spain Scandinavia Italian city-states also became rich and powerful German princes remained loyal to the Holy Roman Empire

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23 The Crusades As populations increased Europeans began to look outward at the world The Crusades reflected the new expansiveness and religious passion of Europe after 1000 First one in 1095 Religious wars NOT just Islam also sacked Constantinople in 1204

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27 Western Europe Byzantine Empire Language of the Church Greek Priests Celibate God s Representative on Earth Political Organization Social Organization Pope Empire/Strong Central Gov t Major Trade Routes

28 For the back of a page 1. What replaced the Roman Order in Western Europe? 2. In what ways did European civilization change after 1000CE? 3. How did the historical development of the European West differ from that of Byzantium in the post classical era?

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