Justinian. Byzantine Emperor Reconquered much of the old Roman Empire Code of Justinian

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3 Byzantine Empire Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium, a Greek city in the eastern part of the empire. Ruled over the Balkan Peninsula, the Middle East and parts of Italy.

4 Constantinople Founded by Emperor Constantine in 330 AD Located along land routes that connected Europe and Asia On the Bosporus, a waterway connecting the Black Sea t the Mediterranean Surrounded on three sides by water, had thick wall, making it almost invulnerable to attack.

5 Justinian Byzantine Emperor Reconquered much of the old Roman Empire Code of Justinian

6 Code of Justinian Emperor Justinian collected all of the existing Roman laws and organized them into a single code listing all the laws and opinions on each subject. Required all persons to belong to the Eastern Orthodox Christian faith.

7 Hagia Sophia Built by the Byzantines with its giant dome. Included colorful icons and mosaics.

8 Theodora Strong-willed wife of Emperor Justinian who ruled as Co-Empress and held great influence over the Emperor.

9 Great Schism A split between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church in The Byzantines developed their own form of Christianity Eastern Orthodoxy and did not recognize the Pope as the head of their church. There were differences on the role of icons, views on the Trinity, and the shape of the cross.

10 Orthodox Christianity Separate from the Roman Catholic Church, Orthodox Christians differed on the role of icons, views on the Trinity, and the shape of the cross.

11 Roman Catholicism The single most powerful organization in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The head of the Catholic Church was the Pope in Rome.

12 Icons Images of Jesus and the saints.

13 Patriarch Eastern Orthodox Christians did not recognize the Pope as the head of their church. Instead, they had their own Patriarch.

14 Pope The head of the Roman Catholic Church. The Pope was regarded as the successor of St. Peter, leader of the apostles after the death of Jesus. Catholics believe the Pope had inherited the role of Peter in running the Church. The Pope governed the Church with the help of cardinals, bishops, and other church officials.

15 Middle Ages From the fall of Rome in 476 AD to the 1400 s, historians refer to this time period as The Middle Ages, or Medieval Period (period between ancient and modern times).

16 Feudalism Begun by the Franks and spread to all of Western Europe, kings offered nobles a grant of land, known as a feud or fief, in exchange for loyalty and service. The nobleman, known as the vassal, gave allegiance to the king.

17 Manorialism During feudalism, most people lived on manors. A manor consisted of the lord s house and the peasants living in the surrounding territory. This economic system is referred to as manorialism.

18 Peasants/Serfs Peasant farmers produced the food used by medieval society. Most worked long hours to grow enough food to survive each year. Although most peasants were farmers, some were millers, blacksmiths, and tavern owners. Life revolved around the agrarian calendar. Most of the time was spent working the land. Peasants live din small towns or nearby farms on their lord s manor. A typical home was a 2 room cottage with wall of dried mud, branches and straw.

19 Lords/Nobles Nobles controlled political life under feudalism. They built large castles for their own protection, often rivaling those of the king in size. They surrounded themselves with armed knights. The king relied on his nobles for his own army, and the nobles often fought among themselves or challenged the king s authority. Civil wars were frequent, and powerful nobles often grabbed land for themselves.

20 Monarchs One who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right, especially a sole and absolute ruler.

21 Knights Lords had small armies of knights armed warriors on horseback. Knights followed a Code of Chivalry (honor and order).

22 Charlemagne Charlemagne (King Charles) became king in 768 AD. He expanded the practice of giving land to his nobles in change for their promises of loyalty and service. He enlarged his kingdom to include France, Germany, Holland, Belgium and Northern Italy. He established a new capital a Aachen which he turned into a center of learning. He was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 800 by the Pope.

23 Crusades In 1095, Pope Urban II called on all Christians in Europe to unite and fight a holy war to recapture the Holy Land from its Muslim rulers. The Church promised salvation to all who participated.

24 Thomas Aquinas A great Christian thinker who had great influence on the Middle Ages. His most famous book, Summa Theologica, provided a summary of Christian beliefs. Aquinas showed how Christianity was compatible with works by Aristotle and said that God had given man the power to reason to help him explain and interpret the world. There fore, we should trust reason as well as faith.

25 Magna Carta In 1215, the English nobles (barons) rebelled against the taxes and forced loans being collected by King John. John was forced to sign an agreement that guaranteed all free men the right to a trial by jury and forced the king to obtain the consent of a council of nobles for most new taxes.

26 Hundred Years War A war between England and France over succession to the throne. This long period of warfare slowly strengthened royal power in both countries and allowed new weapons to emerge, such as the English long bow.

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