Chapter 9. The Byzantine Empire, Russia, and the rise of Eastern Europe

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1 Chapter 9 The Byzantine Empire, Russia, and the rise of Eastern Europe

2 The 2 nd Rome Map of the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Justinian

3 Building and Defending the Empire Justinian- Ruled the Byzantine Empire from He dreamed of restoring a United Roman Empire He regained Southern Spain and parts of Northern Africa

4 Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom)

5 Building and Defending the Empire Victories were short lived After Justinian s death- Lombards took Italy Byzantines also pushed east and took Huns To survive brutal attacks, Byzantine emperors become skillful diplomats They did not hesitate to use bribery They also bought peace by marrying off their daughters to potential rivals.

6 Strength of the Empire Lasted for 1,000 years Emperors had absolute power- their will was law. Loyal, well-trained army Strong Economy Emperor had complete control over economy; he set wages and established monopolies(example- silkworm)

7 To Byzantium on the Silk Road

8 Political Chaos kept the Western Empire at a standstill while economy and trade helped Eastern to thrive Eastern coins were accepted as the most stable Constantinople became a center for world commerce, primarily because of the location on the Bosporus Straits. (See Map) Great division between rich and poor

9 Byzantine Coins

10 The Great Schism Religious Disputes and Economic Competition strained relations between East and West Byzantine emperor did not recognize Pope as the head of the church The emperor, as the absolute ruler, headed the church. Clergy were considered state officials, which were responsible to the emperor Patriarchs became bishops of major cities Greek rather than Latin was used

11 Roman Catholic/Eastern Orthodox

12 The Great Schism Priests could marry Were tolerant of Non-Christian Religions like Muslims 1054 AD- A split created the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church As trade revived in West, bitter rivalry between the two regions also developed

13 Byzantine Heritage Constantinople became a blend of Roman, Christian, Greek, and Middle Eastern influences which was evident in Art and Architecture Adorned churches with lifelike figures of saints until 700 when icon worship was forbidden by a Byzantine Emperor Preserved Greco-Roman heritage by preserving classical works on science, math, and philosophy.

14 Destruction of idols

15 Preserving Roman Law Justinian ordered scholars to summarize all existing Roman Law and produce a huge work known as Justinian s Code Justinian kept Roman legal traditions alive

16 Justinian s Code

17 Decline of Empire Internal and External pressures led to eventual decline External Threats Seljuk Turks conquered Middle East Christian Crusaders Ottoman Turks- eventually took over. In 1400 s they marched through Constantinople and went straight into the Balkans They took Constantinople and changed the name to Istanbul

18 Fall of Constantinople

19 Eastern Europe: Heir to Byzantine Civilization Byzantine Empire influenced the Slavic people Religion was the chief means by which Byzantine transferred their heritage to the Slavs

20 Early Russian Church

21 The Peoples of Eastern Europe Geography: Eastern Europe-From Ural Mountains in the East to Oden River in the West, Baltic Sea in the North to Adriatic Sea in the South Slavs- Indo-European people who lived around the region of Kiev in Russia They migrated to the Balkans between A.D. Balkans come under Byzantine Empire Greek monks converted many Slavs to Christianity

22 Early conversion

23 Kievan Russia- In the 800 s and 900 s Kiev emerged as the center of a prosperous Slavic state known as Kievan Russia Kiev was linked to Constantinople by Dnieper River.

24 Kiev 900 AD

25 Russia Prince Vladimir decided to abandon old Slavic gods He was deciding on which religion to follow Islam, Judaism or Christianity. He rejected first two because those religions forbade eating certain foods He chose Christianity- the Eastern Orthodox Church Vladimir was also attracted to Byzantine Christian because of the magnificent churches Also the church allowed them to use their own language, whereas the Pope would have insisted on Latin. Secular ruler headed the Church, not the Pope

26 Prince Vladimir

27 Prince Vladimir Christian Clergy became an important class in Kievan Society They established schools They taught the Cyrillic (Slavic) alphabet

28 Mongol Invasions Conquered from China to Eastern Europe Captured and destroyed Kiev They were called the Golden Horde (tents), ruled Russia for nearly 250 years Demanded a heavy tribute from Russians Mongol Rule cut Russia off from contacts with Western Europe Commerce and industry which prospered in Kievan Russia disappeared Between Russians were not aware of ideas shaping the Western Civilization

29 Mongol Invasion Genghis Kahn and the Golden Horde

30 Princes of Moscow In the 1300 s, princes of Moscow gained power as Mongol power declined They grew rich by keeping part of the tribute collected by Mongols One prince took the title of Grand Prince of All Russia He persuaded the East Orthodox Church to move its center to Moscow During the 1400 s Moscow became the center of a unified Russian state

31 Early Prince of Russia

32 Ivan III ( ) Called the founder of Modern Russia Announced no more tribute to the Mongols Alliances with other Russian princes Expelled German nobles from land seized in Western Russia Freed the people from foreign rule Established strong government

33 Ivan III

34 Ivan III Resembled Byzantine traditions He married niece of the last Byzantine emperor Took title of Czar (Russian for Caesar) Called Moscow 3rd Rome ( Constantinople 2nd, Rome 1st) Adopted double-headed eagle ( Symbol of Byzantine Empire) Absolute power over government and church

35 Absolute power he claimed came from God Established secret police that brutally enforced his authority Known as Ivan the Terrible Ivan IV

36 Feudalism in Russian lasted into the 20th century In the 1500 s, Russians renewed their contact with the West, yet they entered into a feudalist society just as the West was coming out of a feudalist society. Feudalism in Russian lasted into the 20th century

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