Feudal Europe Chapter 10

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1 Finals Review_7th

2 Feudal Europe Chapter 10

3 Lesson 1 pg. 256 Europe After Rome 1. Barbarian invasions & fall of Rome 2. Germanic kingdoms & Charlemagne 4. Rise of Feudalism 3. Disunity & invasion

4 Germanic Kingdoms Small communities Unwritten rules + traditions No trade system or large government No emphasis on learning (no schools) No middle class Greek & Roman culture is lost

5 1. Changes to Europe After the Fall of Rome 1)New kingdoms set-up in the lands Germanic people conquered 2)Reduction in long-distance trade 3)Decline in learning + commitment to Greek & Roman culture 4)Disappearance of cities and rise of small communities

6 3. Clovis (King of the Franks) King of the Franks at age 15 in 481 CE Merovingian dynasty Converts to Christianity & becomes baptized Begins to spread Christianity Why? Stabilizes kingdom & creates alliance with the church

7 4. Why is this significant? Makes Christianity more accepted in Western Europe Causes Christianity to spread & become more popular

8 5. Charles Martel A Mayor of the Palace Leads Christian troops into battle against Spanish Muslims (Umayyads) Defeats Muslims Battle of Tours, 732 CE

9 Battle of Tours, 732

10 5. Importance? Causes Europe to remain Christian and not convert to Islam 5. Legacy continued by His son, Pepin The Short Grandson, Charlemagne

11 6. Charlemagne 768 CE-Pepin s son Military conquests (60 campaigns) Made defeated opponents accept the Roman Catholic Church Had to swear loyalty to him as their new ruler.

12 800 CE Pope Leo III crowns him emperor. Needs Charlemagne s protection & support (former Western Roman Empire) Dedicated to strengthening the church and learning

13 7. Charlemagne s Achievements Brings education & culture Ex. Has manuscripts copied; makes sure clergy is literate; religious services are preformed the same way Tries to rid the church of corruption

14 12. William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy, France Descendant of Vikings Took control of England after Battle of Hastings, 1066 Used feudalism to divide lands of England!!

15 13. Feudalism What is it? Social & political arrangement of people Why? Need for protection against invaders & landowner s need for defense Hierarchies; William the Conqueror How does it work? Vassals received land in return for loyalty, protection & services

16 Oath of Fealty

17 Place Castle/Manor People Nobles, knights, servants Buildings Castle was the center of feudal life + safety during battle Walls are 3ft thick Surrounded by a moat

18 Objects Horses, dogs Windows Weapons of the knights Activities/ Jobs Lady/Lord sleep behind a curtain in main hall Ice- cold bath Lord provides knight with food, shelter, armor, horse Women cook, clean, make clothes, medical care, take control when the lord is absent

19

20 Place Farm People Peasants (SERFS) Buildings Wooden homes Granaries

21 Objects Oxen, horses,farm animals wheelbarrow, plows, horseshoes, crops like cabbage, parsley, leeks Activities/ Jobs Farming for the lord of the land Plowing= richer soil, more crops Store food Wine making

22

23 Place Monastery/ Convent People Priests, clergy, nuns, monks, servants, Buildings Church Monastery had-granaries, breweries, bakeries, libraries

24 Objects Bible Ovens Activities/ Jobs Baptism, marriage, burials Church was a preparation for eternal life Education

25

26

27 Place Town People Peasants, scholars, freed serfs, Christians, Jews, craftsmen, merchants, shopkeepers Buildings Crowded streets Wooden houses Shops/Stores Workshops

28 Objects Linen from Italy, Wool from Flanders Leather from Spain Activities/ Jobs Guilds- Shoemakers, blacksmiths, tailors, bakers, etc Artisans & Craftsman Merchants trade, leads to a commercial life

29 Towns 1100 s Life outside of the social hierarchy Merchants & craftspeople (guilds) Development of a commercial life

30 Daily Life Church bells announce time for daily activities work, meals, rest, & worship services Community Center -Town meetings, celebrations, farmer s markets, etc

31 Education inspired by Muslim schools & knowledge from Muslim World Philosophy, theology, medicine, law, classics Governments replaced monasteries as a place of learning ; establish universities

32 Art Jesus is the main subject in paintings and sculpture Gothic cathedrals ribbed arches flying buttress

33 The Crusades DEFINITION: 8 Christian missions from Europe to regain the Holy Land, Jerusalem, from infidels

34 The Crusades Dates:

35 Motivations Knights -> Land; Money ($$); Salvation Peasants -> Salvation; Freedom; Adventure

36 The Crusaders & The Major Crusades Crusader: one who takes up the cross 1st Crusade: Success; Captured Jerusalem 2nd Crusade: Christians fight each other; Jerusalem lost to Muslims 3rd Crusade: New Muslim threat ; Failed again 4th Crusade: Destruction of Constantinople

37

38 Benefits of the Crusades 1. Trade:Luxury goods (ex. silk, spices, glass, pearls, etc ) 2. Advanced military technology (ex. gunpowder) 3. Music & Poetry (More romantic & values women) 4. Spread of Christianity (for church) 5. Strong national government (decline of feudalism!) 6. Larger world view (open to exploration)

39 THE BLACK DEATH

40 New Ways-HUMANISM Study of the classics & humanities Recreating the spirit Classical arts Literature Philosophy

41 How did the ideas of humanism differ from earlier thought? Old Thinking Church & king are above all New Thinking Individual worth Sinful creatures struggling to get into heaven No desire for learning (1200s this starts to change) Commitment to public service Development of a variety of skills

42 Renaissance Notes Period of rebirth in W. Europe, 1300s-1600s Increased trade between Europe & the rest of the world Growth of cities + wealth Spread of humanism 1. Individual has worth and value 2. Encourage wellrounded individual (pursue personal achievement) 3. Support public service (funding arts & inventions)

43 Who? Leonardo da Vinci Accomplishments? Scientific & War Inventions Humanism in art Famous For: Mona Lisa s Changed Society By Inspired learning, creation, becoming a well-rounded person

44 Religious Reformation s Roman Catholic Church Corruption of clergy Pardons sins by buying indulgences Martin Luther s 95 Theses (challenges church authority) Religion is made more personal; justification by faith Translation of Bible into vernacular (more universal) Divisions of religions Catholics, Orthodox, Protestant, etc

45 Age of Enlightenment Age of Reason s Roots from the Renaissance; people have value & potential (humanism) Using reason to understand ideas and solve societies problems >learning & science can improve life Philosophes change the understanding of government King has duty to the people & the people have natural rights Influence on the United States government King People

46 A New Order of Ideals 3. How were Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau alike & different in their philosophies of government? All agreed that the main purpose of government was to improve life for its people! Locke Contract between ruler & people People can overthrow the ruler if treated unfairly Montesquieu Limiting the power of the monarch Three branches of government Rousseau Contract Direct democracy

47 Age of Exploration Goals of European Exploration To expand world view To prevent monopolies To acquire trade goods To spread Christianity

48 Age of Exploration European shipbuilding, mapmaking & geographical knowledge improve Expansion of worldview (learned from the crusades) Direct access to trade with the outside by sea Colonization

49 Scientific Revolution Challenge of church theories Questioning superstitious theories & beliefs Using science to find answers to understanding the physical world Scientific Method Observation, experimentation & interpretation Development of new technology (scientific inventions)

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