A. After the Roman Empire collapsed, western Europe was ruled by Germanic tribes.

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1 Timeline

2 I. Medieval Europe A. After the Roman Empire collapsed, western Europe was ruled by Germanic tribes.

3 B. By the 4 th century, the Catholic Church became more powerful. The church was (is) organized geographically The area around a church is a parish A group of parishes make up a diocese, ruled by a bishop

4 1. The bishop of Rome claimed to be leader of the entire Church. 2. Bishops of Rome are called popes.

5 Pope Gregory the Great ( ) Strengthened the power of the papacy Was a political leader around Rome Pope s lands were called the Papal States.

6 Monasticism the practice of living in a monastery (abbey), separate from the world Monks (or nuns) follow a rule. The Rule of Saint Benedict was used by many They spread Christianity through Europe

7 Iona Abbey (Monastery)

8 C. 768 A.D., Charlemagne became king of the Franks and conquered western and central Europe. His lands were the Carolingian Empire.

9 1. In 800, Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by the Pope. His descendants were called Holy Roman Emperor. The Pope asking Charlemagne for help

10 2. Carolingian Renaissance A renaissance is a rebirth a) Preserved classical ideas and culture b) Monasteries played a key role in this preservation. Monks copied handwritten books called manuscripts.

11 The Book of Kells an illuminated manuscript

12 Manuscript illumination

13 3. The Carolingian Empire fell apart after Charlemagne s death due to invasions of the Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims.

14 II. Feudalism or Manorialism A. A social, political, and economic system in Medieval Europe. The most valuable commodity in feudalism was land.

15 1. Kings - Ruled the land 2. Lords (nobles) - Owned the land (manor or estate) 3. Knights (vassals)- Gave service to the lord 4. Serfs - Worked the land

16 Feudal contract The lord granted land (a fief) and protection to the vassal In return, the vassal owed his lord military service The vassal swore an oath of loyalty to his lord

17 Catholic Church parish diocese bishop pope Pope Gregory the Great Papal States. Monasticism monastery (abbey) Monks and nuns Rule of Saint Benedict Charlemagne Carolingian Empire. Carolingian Renaissance manuscripts. Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims Random review Feudalism or Manorialism Lords (nobles) Knights (vassals) Serfs Feudal contract (4 th ) code of chivalry (5 th ) Emperor Justinian The Hippodrome (8 th ) Eastern (Greek) Orthodox Church Great Schism The Crusades Long-term impact of Crusades

18 B. King, lord, and knight followed a code of chivalry: Defend the church Defend the weak (widows, children) Be loyal, generous Respect and honor women Be honest

19 III. The Byzantine Empire A. Justinian emperor, 527. Known for his law code, the Justinian Code. Imperial capital: Constantinople.

20

21 The Hippodrome - Arena where gladiator fights and chariot races were held.

22 a) After Justinian s rule, the Byzantines lost land in the Balkans, Syria, and Palestine

23 C. The Eastern (Greek) Orthodox Church was the church of the Byzantine Empire.

24 1. Great Schism The Catholic (Roman) and Orthodox (Byzantine) churches drifted apart. In 1054, the Roman Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicated each other.

25 Byzantine Accomplishments Orthodox Christianity spread Justinian Code Hagia Sophia Church Constantinople became major city Preservation of Greek and Roman culture

26 The Crusades Under intense pressure, the Byzantine emperor asked the West for help fighting the (Muslim) Seljuk Turks. The crusaders were warriors (knights) from the West.

27 1. In four Crusades, the westerners fought the Muslims, and held the Holy Lands for a time, but were eventually expelled from the Middle East.

28 2. Long-term impact of Crusades - a) Trade between Italian city-states, Venice, Pisa, and Genoa, and the Middle East developed. Europeans began to desire a steady supply of Eastern products.

29 3. Eventually, strong central governments formed. Feudalism only makes sense where government is decentralized. The rigid class structure of feudalism declined.

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