1 Chapter 10: Medieval Kingdoms in Europe, Lesson 3: The Growth of European Kingdoms
2 World History Bell Ringer # How did craft guilds improve economic conditions in cities? A. Encouraged competition among workers. B. Set quality standards for goods produced. C. Organized workers to strike. D. Kept women out of the workforce.
3 World History Bell Ringer #45 2. What was life like for serfs under the economic system of manorialism? A. Serfs lived a simple life on the lord s manor and were free to come and go as they pleased. B. Serfs had no rights under the economic system of manorialism and were considered slaves. C. Serfs provided year-round labor on the lord s manor and were legally bound to the agricultural estate. D. Serfs enjoyed a variety of activities living in the manor household, which was especially hectic during the fall harvest.
4 It Matters Because The domination of society by the nobility reached its high point between 1000 and 1300 the High Middle Ages. At the same time, monarchs began extending their power. This frequently led to conflict between kings and nobles.
5 England in the High Middle Ages Guiding Questions: How did society and the legal system in England evolve after 1066? Angles and Saxons- Germanic peoples from northern Europe, had invaded England early in the 5 th century. King Alfred the Great had united various kingdoms in the late 9 th century, and since then, England had been ruled by Anglo-Saxon kings.
6 The Norman Conquest On October 14, 1066, an army of heavily armed knights under William of Normandy landed on the coast of England and soundly defeated King Harold and his foot soldiers at the Battle of Hastings. William was then crowned king of England. Norman knights received parcels of land, which they held as fiefs, from the king. All nobles swore an oath of loyalty to William as sole ruler of England.
8 The Norman Conquest The Norman ruling class spoke French, but the marriage of the Normans with the Anglo-Saxon nobility gradually merged Anglo-Saxon and French into a new English language. The Normans also took over existing Anglo-Saxon institutions, like the office of sheriff. William took a census known as the Domesday Book, the first census taken in Europe since Roman times and included people, manors, and farm animals. William also developed more fully the system of taxation and royal courts begun by earlier Anglo-Saxon kings.
10 Henry II & the Church The power of the English monarchy was enlarged during the reign of Henry II, from 1154 to Henry II increased the number of criminal cases tried in the king s court and also devised means for taking property cases from local courts and moving them to the royal courts. By expanding the power of the royal courts, Henry II expanded the king s overall power. In addition, because the royal courts were now found throughout England, a body of common law law that was common to the whole kingdom was created and began to replace law codes that varied from place to place.
12 Henry II & the Church Henry II was less successful at imposing royal control over the Church. Henry II claimed the right to punish clergymen in royal courts. Thomas à Becket- archbishop of Canterbury and the highestranking English cleric, claimed that only Roman Catholic Church courts could try clerics. An angry king publicly expressed the desire to be rid of Becket: "Who will free me from this turbulent priest? 4 knights took the challenge, went to Canterbury, and murdered the archbishop in the cathedral. Faced with public outrage, Henry II backed down in his struggle with the Church.
13 The Magna Carta Many English nobles resented the ongoing growth of the king s power and rebelled during the reign of King John. At Runnymede in 1215, John was forced by the nobles to put his seal on a document called the Magna Carta, or the Great Charter. This document gave written recognition to the feudal custom that the relationship between king and vassals was based on mutual rights and obligations. The ideas contained in the Magna Carta continue to impact governments in the present day. Politically, it gives strength to the idea that the power of a government is limited, not absolute. Legally, the Magna Carta limits the king s power to punish people outside the rule of law. Punishments for crimes cannot be random and must be based on laws.
16 The Magna Carta In the 13 th century, during the reign of Edward I, an important institution in the development of representative government (one of the basic institutions of modern democratic governments) the Parliament also emerged. It was composed of 2 knights from every county, 2 people from every town, and all the nobles and bishops throughout England. Eventually, nobles and church lords formed the House of Lords; knights and townspeople, the House of Commons. The Parliaments of Edward I granted taxes, discussed politics, and passed laws.
17 France in the High Middle Ages Guiding Question: Why was the reign of King Philip II Augustus a turning point in the French monarchy? In 843, the Carolingian Empire was divided into 3 sections. The western section formed the core of the kingdom of France. In 987, after the last Carolingian king died, the west Frankish nobles made Hugh Capet their king, establishing the Capetian dynasty of French kings. Although called kings, the Capetians had little real power, controlling only the area around Paris. Many of the great dukes of France were more powerful than their king. The reign of Philip II Augustus, who reigned from 1180 to 1223, was a turning point in the French monarchy, expanding its income and power. Philip fought wars against the English to take control of the French territories of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine. Philip s successors continued to add lands to the royal domain.
19 France in the High Middle Ages Much of the 13 th century was dominated by the reign of Louis IX (9 th ). Deeply religious, Louis IX was later made a saint by the Catholic Church. Louis IX was known for trying to bring justice to his people by hearing their complaints in person. Philip IV (4 th ), called Philip the Fair, ruled from 1285 to Philip IV made the monarchy stronger by expanding the royal bureaucracy. Indeed, by 1300, France was the largest and best-governed monarchy in Europe. Philip IV also created a French parliament by meeting with members of the 3 estates, or orders the clergy (First Estate), the nobles (Second Estate), and the townspeople and peasants (Third Estate). The meeting, held in 1302, began the Estates-General- the first French parliament.
21 The Holy Roman Empire Guiding Question: Why did the lands of Germany and Italy not become united during the Middle Ages? In the 10 th century, the powerful dukes of the Saxons became kings of the eastern Frankish kingdom, which came to be known as Germany. The best-known Saxon king of Germany was Otto I. Otto I was a patron (supporter) of German culture and brought the Church under his control. In return for protecting the pope, Otto I was crowned emperor of the Romans in 962. The title had not been used since the time of Charlemagne. Otto s creation of a new Roman Empire in the hands of the Germans had long-range consequences for Europe.
23 The Holy Roman Empire As leaders of a new Roman Empire, the German kings attempted to rule both German and Italian lands. 2 of these kings, Frederick I and Frederick II, instead of building a strong German kingdom, tried to create a new kind of empire. Frederick I planned to get his chief revenues from Italy. Frederick I considered Italy the center of a "holy empire," as he called it hence the name Holy Roman Empire. Frederick s attempt to conquer northern Italy led to severe problems. The pope opposed him, fearing that he wanted to include Rome and the Papal States as part of his empire. The cities of northern Italy, which had become used to their freedom, were also unwilling to become his subjects. An alliance of these northern Italian cities and the pope defeated the forces of Frederick I in 1176.
24 The Holy Roman Empire The struggle between popes and German emperors had dire consequences for the Holy Roman Empire. By spending their time fighting in Italy, the emperors left Germany in the hands of powerful German lords. These nobles ignored the emperor and created their own independent kingdoms. This made the German monarchy weak and incapable of maintaining a strong monarchical state. In the end, the German Holy Roman Emperor had no real power over either the German states or the Italian states. Unlike France and England, neither Germany nor Italy created a national monarchy in the Middle Ages. Both Germany and Italy consisted of many small independent states and territories.
25 Spain & the Umayyad Caliphate Guiding Question: What was the impact of Muslim rule on Europe? After its conquest by the Umayyad Caliphate in 725 A.D., most of Spain had become a Muslim province called Al- Andalus. Muslim rule over much of Spain would last for centuries. Consequently, the Islamic caliphates had an impact on the social, cultural, and political development of this part of Europe.
26 Spain & the Umayyad Caliphate Non-Muslim groups in the caliphate, which included Christians and Jews, were allowed to continue practicing their religions. Additionally, they had their own courts and could hold minor positions in government. However, as elsewhere in the caliphate, Christians and Jews were ruled under the concept of dhimmitude. This meant they were subject to a special tax and other regulations meant to remind them that they lived under Muslim rule. As a consequence many people, especially in the southern part of Spain, converted to Islam.
27 Spain & the Umayyad Caliphate Islamic rule also significantly impacted Spanish culture. For example, modern-day Andalusia in the southernmost region of Spain gets its name from the Islamic term Al-Andalus. Similarly, although it has been believed that the Spanish language derives solely from Latin, Arabic influence can be found in various words such as algebra or azúcar meaning sugar. Most recognizable, however, would be Islam s architectural influence, notably the palace of Seville. Slender columns, cupolas, and open spaces characterized Moorish architecture.
29 Spain & the Umayyad Caliphate Politically, the majority of Spain was under the rule of the caliphate or the Emir (Duke) of Córdoba for centuries. However, pockets of Christian resistance remained, particularly in the northern regions of the Iberian Peninsula. Historians count the Reconquista or the Christian re-conquest of Spain as beginning as early as 718 A.D. with a victory of Christian forces over the forces of the Umayyad Caliphate. By 929 A.D., Spain had divided into a collection of Christian kingdoms in the north and Muslim emirates in the south. The Reconquista would continue for another 500 years.
30 Central & Eastern Europe Guiding Question: Which Slavic peoples formed new kingdoms in eastern and central Europe? The Slavic peoples were originally a single people in central Europe. Gradually, they divided into 3 major groups: the western, southern, and eastern Slavs.
32 Slavic Europe The western Slavs eventually formed the Polish and Bohemian kingdoms. German monks had converted both the Czechs in Bohemia and the Slavs in Poland to Christianity by the 10 th century. The non-slavic kingdom of Hungary was also converted. The Poles, Czechs, and Hungarians (Magyars) all accepted Western Christianity and became part of the Roman Catholic Church and its Latin culture. The eastern Slavic peoples of Moravia were converted to Orthodox Christianity by 2 Byzantine missionary brothers, Cyril and Methodius, who began their activities in 863. The Slavic peoples had no written language. Cyril developed the Cyrillic alphabet so that he could create a Christian Bible and liturgy in the Slavic language.
34 Slavic Europe The southern Slavic peoples included the Croats, the Serbs, and the Bulgarians. Most of them embraced Eastern Orthodoxy, although the Croats came to accept the Roman Catholic Church. The acceptance of Eastern Orthodoxy by many southern and eastern Slavic peoples meant that their cultural life was linked to the Byzantine state.
35 Kievan Rus & Mongol Rule Eastern Slavic peoples had also settled in presentday Ukraine and Russia. There, in the late 8 th century, they encountered Swedish Vikings who moved into their lands in search of plunder and new trade routes. The native peoples were eventually dominated by the Vikings, whom they called the Rus (from which Russia is derived).
36 Kievan Rus & Mongol Rule One Viking leader, Oleg, settled in Kiev (present-day Kyiv) at the beginning of the 10 th century and created the Rus state known as the Principality of Kiev. Oleg also opened trade with the Byzantines, increasing the prosperity of the Rus. Oleg s successors extended their control over the eastern Slavs and expanded Kiev, until it included the territory between the Baltic and Black Seas and the Danube and Volga Rivers. By marrying Slavic wives, the Viking ruling class was gradually assimilated (integrated) into the Slavic population.
37 Kievan Rus & Mongol Rule The growth of the Principality of Kiev attracted Byzantine missionaries. One Rus ruler, Vladimir, married the Byzantine emperor s sister and officially accepted Eastern Orthodox Christianity for himself and his people in 988. Orthodox Christianity became the religion of the state. By adopting Orthodox Christianity, Vladimir tied Russia politically and culturally to the Byzantine Empire. Kievan Rus reached its high point in the first half of the 11 th century. This was largely due to the prosperous trade route between the Baltic and Black Seas. However, civil wars and new invasions brought an end to the first Russian state in 1169, fragmenting the region into a collection of minor states. This disunity, coupled with devastating cavalry tactics, allowed the Mongols to invade and conquer Russia in the 13 th century.
38 Kievan Rus & Mongol Rule The Mongolian invasion had a significant impact on Europe. The first effect was largely negative. The shock and brutality of the invasion resulted in a loss of population as Mongolian forces destroyed cities and refugees fled their advance. However, as time passed, the Mongolian invasions had some positive results. For instance, the Mongolians introduced several Eastern inventions, like gunpowder, to Europe. Trade, too, increased under Mongol rule. Finally, Mongolian rule led to an eventual unification of Russia. One subject Russian prince, Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod, defeated a German invading army in northwestern Russia in The leader of the western Mongol Empire rewarded Nevsky with the title of Grand Prince. Nevsky s descendants became princes of Moscow and eventually leaders of all Russia.
39 Assignment Complete Chapter 10, Lesson 3 Quiz. You are allowed to use your notes to assist you on completing your quiz, but NOT your Chromebook or phone! Turn your quiz into the organizer after you have finished completing it. Make sure your name is on your quiz before you turn it in!
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