Chapter 7: Medieval- middle age

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1 Chapter 7: Medieval- middle age While the Byzantines prospered, the old Western empire fell into the Dark Ages. Germanic tribes snatched up what was the Roman Empire between AD They include Vandals, Goths, Saxons, and Franks Mostly farmers and herders, no written laws, small communities, loyal to the king

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3 The Franks 486 AD the Franks-led by Clovis, conquered Gaul France Converted to Christianity-allied with the Pope Muslims had conquered much of the Eastern empire, North Africa, and Spain in the 600 s Charles Martel, the king of the Franks went to defend Christianity They defeated the Muslims at the battle of Tours in 732

4 Charlemagne The grandson of Charles Martel, also named Charles, became Charlemagne Charles the Great Reigned for 46 years, fought Muslims, Saxons, Avars and Slavs, and Lombards Christmas day 800, the Pope crowned Charlemagne Emperor of Rome

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6 Charlemagne Pope Leo III, revived the Christian community, Christendom by doing so Missionaries converted pagans Charlemagne appointed nobles to rule local regions, worked to educate the kingdom and revive Latin

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8 Charlemagne After his death, his grandsons divided the kingdom in 843 Heirs faced waves of invasion: Muslims conquered Sicily and more land until the 900s when struggles erupt in the ME Magyars settled in Hungry, and Vikings came out of Scandinavia into parts of the kingdom

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10 Feudalism is a loosely organized system of rule: Powerful Lord-lesser Lords (vassals)-knights- Peasants Vassals receive a fief (estate) in exchange for tribute and military service A complex relationshipvassals often had fiefs from different lords Feudalism

11 Feudalism

12 Knights and Nobles A knight was a mounted warrior At 7, boys slated to be knight began training Knights lived in the castle they fought to defend Later in the middle ages, they took up Chivalry, be brave, loyal, and honest-fight fairly Troubadours, wandering musicians sang songs about them

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14 Manor System In feudalism, the manor (lord s estate) was the heart Villages and surrounding areas produced goods, worked by serfs (peasants tied to the land who could leave, only with the lord s permission) Most serfs didn t live past 35

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16 The Medieval Church Through mission work, by the late middle ages, western Europe was mainly Christian-anyone not was viewed suspiciously Christian rituals were a daily part of life People could only achieve salvation through administering of the sacraments Latin only for bibles-practice Illumination

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18 The Medieval Church The church was the biggest building in town Baptism was the entrance into the community and the dead were buried in the churchyard (holy ground) Cathedrals were built for bishops Women-equal before God, but not on Earthweak and easily led into sin

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20 The Medieval Church Some Christians moved into monastic life A monk, Benedict, created rules to govern life in the monastery, Benedictine Rule 3 vows, obedience to the abbot or abbess, poverty, chastity Days were divided into work, study, and worship

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22 The Medieval Church Monks served the greater community Women began with important roles, but they were relegated to simply accepting the church authority

23 Papal Supremacy Medieval popes became the secular as well as religious leaders of the world, God s representatives on Earth To avoid tortures of hell, one had to do good works, believe in Christ, and participate in sacraments

24 Papal Supremacy The church body of laws-cannon Law, based on religious teaching, govern daily life Disobedience could bring excommunication, not allowed sacraments, thus condemned to hell Powerful nobles who rejected this faced interdict, an order expelling the noble s entire town, region, or kingdom fear of rebellion cause nobles to accept papal supremacy and cannon law

25 Corruption and Reform Some members of the clergy abused their knowledge, became wealthy off tithes and wills from Christians, or spent too much time on their own families 900s obedience, poverty, and chastity renewed 1073 Pope Gregory VII-limited secular influence, outlawed marriage for priests and prohibited selling church office

26 More Religion in the Middle Ages Friars-traveling monks- went around preaching St Francis of Assisi gave up wealth Jewish communities were all over Europe By the late 1000s, prejudice increased, Jews were blamed for disease, disaster, and famine The church issued orders forbidding Jews to own land or practice most occupations thousands migrate to Eastern Europe and thrive

27 Recovery Advances in technology in the 800s-steel plow vs. old wooden plow, horses instead of oxen, increased food production and helped population increase Lords had peasants clear forests and drain swamps to increase food production more Trade increases and roads revive

28 Castles

29 Recovery Trade fairs occurred during summer-during winter, merchants waited with artisansslowly develops into cities To protect the trading cities, merchants ask the lord for a charter, a written document that set rights and privileges. Merchants paid annual fees Capitol (money) used and banking increases

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31 Recovery Merchants formed partnerships to insure themselves from risks Because money was being used, lords changed the feudal system, so many serfs became tenant farmers Merchants, traders, and artisans formed a middle class-disliked by nobles and the church

32 Recovery Guilds, associations of people with common careers, merchants, weavers, bakers, goldsmiths arose to protect the middle class interest Apprentice-Journeyman-Master, women were included Usury-lending money with interest, was forbidden for Christians, so Jewish bankers loaned money-further resentment

33 Emergence of Cities

34 City life Cities overcrowded-2 nd and 3 rd stories added Churches with high steeples or cathedrals dominated landscape No garbage collection or disposal Waste was thrown into the streets-some cities cleared garbage to the edge of town Still filthy and crowded

35 High and Late Middle-Ages Europe1000 AD

36 Norman Conquest of England Invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror Battle of Hastings s-500s-Germanic Tribes, Anglos and Saxons conquer Britain 800s-unified England 1066-William, Duke of Normandy, France becomes King of England, Christmas day Norman French and Anglo-Saxon blend customs, language, and traditions

37 England Establishment of Norman Monarchy Great Council Richard I Lion-Hearted ( ) Serious warrior heroic tales Magna Carta King John of England, a clever, cruel, and untrustworthy ruler was forced by nobles to put his seal on the Magna Carta Gave Nobles rights which went to commoners eventually Rule of Law Due Process (becomes Habeas Corpus) Parliament institution able to restrict power of the king Knights & burgesses elected Becomes House of Commons & House of Lords

38 Monarchs in France Charlemagne s successors left an un-unified France-separate powerful nobles rules different areas. In 987, nobles selected Hugh Capet as king He slowly built the power of his monarchy and support of the growing middle class.

39 Monarchs in France Philip Augustus appointed middle class to bureaucratic positions instead of nobles. He added to land as he went south to assist the church in clearing out heretics. Louis IX-ruled much like Charlemagne-deeply religious-becomes a saint Philip IV-clashed with the pope over power. Selected a French pope. Philip set up the Estates General, a parliamentary body that gave consul to leaders, but did not hold the power of the purse.

40 The Holy Roman Empire Pope Gregory VII wanted to decrease the secular influence on the church Kings could no longer appoint clergy, only the pope could name a bishop As monarchs grew stronger, so did the struggle between church and king

41 The Crusades 1096-Pope Urban II called for Christians to free the Holy Land from the Muslims 1099-Knights captured Jerusalem, 1187 fell to Muslims again Famous leaders-richard the Lionhearted and Saladin

42 The Crusades Series of military campaigns conducted in the name of Christendom Primary goal to recapture Jerusalem & the Holy Land from Muslims Combined pilgrimage with holy war 9 primary crusades to 1291 Usually sanctioned by the Pope Different cultural interpretations Western - heroism, faith and honor Islamic invasion, barbarian savagery and brutality Living memory in Muslim world of today

43 Sacking of Jerusalem

44 Knights Templar Poor Knights of Jesus Christ Took vows of poverty, chastity & obedience Devoted to war guarded pilgrim routes Gained support of Bernard of Clairvaux By 1196 string of Templar castles in Holy Land Fearless warriors 20,000 died during crusades Mistrusted by other crusaders Many rumors about secret religious rites Became enormously wealthy and powerful 900 Templar castles across medieval world Answered to no one except the pope Became prominent bankers of age Ambitions to create their own nation in Europe? King Phillip IV of France Destroys all power on Friday April 13, 1307

45 Saladin Known as greatest Muslim warrior Reputation for nobility Greatly respected in West Chivalrous Kurdish from Tikrit, in present day Iraq Powerbase in Egypt and Syria Eliminates all rivals Unites Muslim forces to confront Crusader kingdoms Portrays himself as champion of Islam against Western invaders 1187 defeats crusaders at Battle of Hattin Captures Jerusalem without fight Spares inhabitants

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47 Legacy of the Crusades The need to raise, transport and supply large armies led to a flourishing of trade throughout Europe Opened Europe to Islamic culture, learning, ideas and products Helped bring on the Renaissance Islamic world has cultural memory of cruel and savage onslaughts by European Christians Strengthened Kings or Central Powers Instituted anti-semitism toward Jews and persecution of heretics

48 Reconquista and the Inquisition Spanish Christians attempt to remove Moors from Spain was the Reconquista 1469-unified Spain 1492-Reconquista complete The Inquisition was an attempt to make Spain 100% Roman Catholic. Over 150,000 Muslims and Jews fled Spain. Many were tortured or burned at the stake for heresy.

49 The Rise of Universities With recovery, a need for educated people Some conflicts arise between faith and reason. Scholasticism was an attempt to use reason to support faith Famous contributors, St. Thomas Aquinas, Dante Alighieri, Geoffrey Chaucer Illumination and Vernacular

50 Three Types of Universities 1. students hired and paid for the teachers - Bologna 2. teachers were paid by the church - Paris 3. supported by the crown and the state Oxford Universities became more organized Set regulations for dress Provided living accommodations By 13 th cen. rules introduced for teachers Six years of study to be a lecturer Eight years & 35 years old to teach theology Students entered the University at fourteen to fifteen years of age Could earn a Bachelors, a Masters, or Doctorate

51 Plague Bubonic Plague spread through Europe during the 1300 s 1 in 3 people died Came from Asia 1200 s (Mongols) Killed 35 million in China

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53 100 Years War Norman English Rulers fought to keep land on the European continent year old Joan of Arc lead the French to a series of victories before being captured and burned at the stake for witchcraft The French came back using the cannon By the end, England held one port in Calais, and the monarchy was weakened because the Parliament had to be asked for war funds.

54 Joan of Arc

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