The Power of the Church

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2 Questions 1. How powerful was the Roman Catholic Church? 2. What were the Crusades? 3. What caused the Crusades? 4. Why was the First Crusade unsuccessful? 5. Which Muslim leader took over Jerusalem during the Second Crusades? 6. Which powerful leader fought in the Third Crusade? 7. What were the effects of the Crusades? 8. What was the Inquisition? 9. What important changes were made to England s government?

3 The Power of the Church From the 11 th through 15 th centuries, the Roman Catholic Church and European monarchies such as England and France, were increasing in power. Many church officials helped political leaders run their kingdoms. The Church also had great wealth, which made it an even more powerful institution. The wealth of the pope was greater than any European Monarch. The pope s power caused many kings to cooperate with the church.

4 Battle for Palestine The Crusades were military expeditions from Christian Europe to Palestine. They had lasting impact on European politics and society.

5 The Causes of the Crusades European Christians began the Crusades for several reasons. Jerusalem and the area around it is sacred to Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Christians called this area the Holy land. The Seljuk takeover of Jerusalem in 1071 made Christian pilgrimages to the Holy land nearly impossible.

6 The Crusades European feudal princes often used success in warfare as one way to gain power. Many princes were eager to go on the Crusades. European Merchants were also willing to finance the Crusades because they may gain access to the rich trade routes that connected with Asia to the east. Seljuk forces attacked the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire asked the pope for help. By 1096, the pope responded and the First Crusade began.

7 The First Crusade In 1096, European armies started out for the Byzantine Empire capitol of Constantinople. From there they planned to attack Palestine. Many Crusaders didn t take enough supplies. Thousands died on the way and many were captured and enslaved. Christians forces captured Jerusalem in They divided it into Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Jerusalem.

8 Muslims Return to Power The Second Crusade ( ) began after Muslim Turks recaptured Edessa in Muslim forces were able to defeat the Crusaders with the rise of a new Muslim leader Saladin. In 1187 Saladin gathered a large force to attack the Crusaders. He won many victories and took over Jerusalem and news reached Europe.

9 The Third Crusade After the fall of Jerusalem, the pope called for another crusade. Some of Europe s most powerful leaders went on the Third Crusades like king Richard the Lion-Hearted. He became the Crusaders leader because of courage and skill in battle. The Crusaders never gained back Jerusalem but in 1192, Saladin and Richard agreed on a truce. Jerusalem would remain under Muslim rule and Saladin would allow Christians to visit the holy city.

10 The Fourth Crusade The truce did not last, and a fourth crusade was launched in To pay Italian traders who were transporting the Crusaders they agreed to attack the Byzantine city of Zara. The Crusaders, then sacked Constantinople to put a political ally in charge of the Byzantine Empire. The pope was furious with the Crusaders for attacking a Christian city. The Crusaders didn t continue the Crusade and the Byzantine Empire was weakened.

11 Muslims Recapture Palestine Europe began the Crusades but by 1270, the Muslims had driven the Crusaders out of Palestine, and the wars ended. The Crusaders did not have a permanent effect on Muslims in Palestine. People lives just continue. Christian traders remained in Palestine and European pilgrims continued to visit their religion s Holy land.

12 Effects of the Crusades European contact with the cultures of the eastern Mediterranean grew during the Crusades. Crusaders brought back Asian goods, resulting in increased trade. Increased trade across the Mediterranean helped European towns to grow and made the role of urban merchants more important.

13 Effects of the Crusades Another effect was the rising Christian hostility toward Jews. More and more Christians believed that all non-christian were their enemy. On their way to Palestine, some crusaders massacred European Jews and continued the killing in Palestine. After the Crusades, Jews were expelled from England in 1290 and from France in 1306 and Many of the Jews moved to eastern Europe. Muslims allowed Jews and Christians to live in peace. Many Crusaders who stayed in Palestine came to respect Muslims, but Christian intolerance toward Jews continued.

14 The Reconquista Muslim leaders drove the Crusaders out of Palestine. But in Spain just the opposite occurred. Here, it was Christian armies that drove out the Muslim rulers Reconquista or reconquest in Spain and Portugal was a series of battles by Christian armies to recapture territory from the Muslims. In the early 700s, Muslims had conquered the Iberian Peninsula, which includes present-day Spain and Portugal. By the 1000s, Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms rose to defeat Muslim forces.

15 King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella unified Spain through military and religious authority. Church officials punished people opposed to church teachings. This was called the Inquisition. Many Jews and Muslims in Spain and Portugal were tortured and executed by the Inquisition. In 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella completed the Reconquista by forcing out the last Muslim rulers and their followers and many Jews as well. Inquisition

16 The Changes in Government The legal practices of medieval England are the foundations of many modern legal practices. King Henry II brought common law to courts. This meant local customs would be part of the decision making. Which brought equal treatment. In 1199, King Henry s son John came to power and he implemented the Magna Carta. This document guaranteed the protection of the law and trial by jury. This document also limited the power of the king and the right for people to not be imprisoned unlawfully called Habeas Corpus.

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