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1

2 Middle Ages = European history between the fall of the Roman Empire (476) and the Modern Era (1450) Also called the Medieval Period ( Medium is Latin for Middle; aevum is Latin for age) Early Middle Ages = C.E. High Middle Ages = C.E. Late Middle Ages = C.E.

3 Some believed that pestilence, war, famine, & death

4 Instability after Rome s fall Lawlessness, corruption, political assassinations, & starvation No national government; local regional lords held the power Lords controlled estates through feudalism Constant fear of plunderers and robbers High inflation and low trade C.E.

5 Christianity spread throughout Europe by the 4 th Century Church established a hierarchy parishes = local communities headed by a priest bishopric = several parishes Cathedral in Exeter, England

6 Catholic Church filled the gap left by no strong leaders Preserved literacy & the classics Controlled all aspects of medieval life Maintained some semblance of civilized living

7 590 - Pope Gregory Increased Pope s power - Governed large territory around Rome - Encouraged the growth of Monasticism - Nunneries -Helped spread Christianity to Eastern Europe & the Slavs

8 : Catholic Church debated several issues Was Jesus flesh, spirit or a combination of both? Use of relics bones/objects connected with saints

9 The Eastern Church disagreed with using relics and images. They were iconoclasts = image breakers Monks white-washed images of Jesus & the saints

10 Romans believed that Rome should be the head of the Church because the apostle Peter spent his last years in Rome. Byzantines didn t accept Rome s leadership of the Catholic Church Schism = separation - Eastern Orthodox Church (Greek & Russian) - Western Catholic Church (Roman)

11 Jesus Christ giving Saint Peter the keys to the kingdom of heaven. Catholic doctrine says that Jesus made Saint Peter the first pope. This established a link between Jesus and the papacy. The pope is viewed as the apostles heir. This doctrine gave the papacy tremendous power. The advantages taken by certain popes of this and other doctrines was later criticized by many Christian reformers. Fresco by Perugino Vatican Museums and Galleries, Vatican City, Italy/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York

12 Power of the Church Role of Faith People were religious Believed church represented God and decided who went to Heaven or Hell Power and Wealth Church was Europe s largest landowner Center of Learning Church main center of learning Church officials usually only people that could read or write

13 Crusades Christian Holy War against Muslims (Moors) Turks overtook Jerusalem in 11 th Century 1095 Pope Urban II called on all Christians to unite and fight the Muslims (Constantinople) Crusade = War of the Cross

14 Effects of Crusades New Ideas: Zero Silk Rice Spices Coffee Perfume Cotton Cloths Mirrors Increased trade with the Middle East Growth of Intolerance Persecution of Jews and Muslims Persecution of Christians by Muslims

15 Crusades 1. You decide to go on a crusade after hearing the Pope s sermon. List your reasons for going. 2. What would it be like to go on a crusade in an age when you would have to travel on foot or horseback and by sailing boat, and when there were no modern roads, radio, phone or tv? 3. Design your own crusader banner and shield.

16 Kingdom of the Franks Only 1 of the Germanic states that lasted 510 C.E. Established by Clovis Clovis = 1 st Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity

17 Charles Martel defeated the Muslims 732 C.E. Battle of Tours ** Stopped Muslim conquest of Northern Europe

18 Carolingian Empire ( ) Charlemagne = Charles Martel s grandson Intelligent, fierce warrior, strong statesman Created Missi Dominici = king s messengers Strengthened Frankish military Carolingian Renaissance Renaissance = rebirth Established monastic and palace schools Renewed interest in Latin & Greek culture

19 800: Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III 1 st Roman Emperor since 476 Symbolized the emergence of the Middle Ages ( ) Blended Roman, Christian, & Germanic elements A Germanic king was crowned by a Roman pope (spiritual leader of western Christendom)

20 814: Charlemagne died Charlemagne s grandsons fought over the empire 843 = Treaty of Verdun - Heirs divided Carolingian Empire - East (Germany), West (France), & Middle Kingdom (Alsace Lorraine) - Alsace Lorraine fought over for centuries Local nobles gained power Carolingian Empire began to crumble

21 Accomplishments of Charlemagne Charlemagne instituted the same reforms, creating a common identity in people from eastern Germany to southern Spain. Unified currency Spread of Christianity Education for rich and poor

22 9 th & 10 th Centuries = Another wave of Barbarian Invasions

23 Germanic tribes from Scandinavia Raided Northern Europe 9 th -11 th Centuries Fierce warriors Greatly Feared Called Barbarians Sacked towns, destroyed churches, raped, and pillaged

24 Scandinavia - Harsh land - Scarce food - Clan warfare Built long ships = Dragon Ships Sailed up European rivers and attacked far inland

25 Vikings established inland bases Launched several raids from these points

26 Established settlements - Kiev = (Rus) - Normandy (France) - Jorvik (Britain)

27 Viking long ships were narrow & fierce Enabled them to navigate narrow inland European rivers

28 Conversion to Christianity made them a part of the European civilization

29 Late 8 th Century: Vikings attacked Slavic villages south of the Baltic Sea Kievan Rus Vikings dominated the area Natives called the Vikings the Rus Kiev became a major trade center Both trade partner and enemy of the Byzantines

30 Vladimir I (980) Very war like Kievan ruler Invited missionaries from Judaism, Islam and Christianity to offer reasons for conversion Married the Byzantine emperor s sister Brought Christianity and Greco-Roman civilization to Russia

31 Yaroslav I ( ) Created a Russian law code based on Justinian s Code. Instituted a Golden Age of Kievan Russia. Built churches and a new capital city. Allied Russia with the rest of Europe by marrying his children to European rulers.

32

33

34

35 Manorialism Lord/Nobles house and peasants living in the surrounding area to work Manor completely self-sufficient Varied in sized and number per noble

36 Farming In the Middle Ages Three-field system Farm animals often small due to lack of food and bad weather Famine was normal Long hours out in the field Men and women worked side by side Small farm animals normally stayed inside the house

37 Genghiz Khan Conquered China in early 1200s Mongol Empire Kublai Khan Extended Mongol control over most of Asia, Russia and eastern Europe in Hungary. Traded extensively with the West. Entertained Marco Polo. Pax Mongolia time of peace and prosperity during Mongolian rule

38 Superb horsemen Covered 120 miles a day Cut their horse s leg and drank the blood if thirsty Invented the stirrup Ride and shoot arrows Greatly feared Barbaric

39 Largest land empire in the world

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