Western Civilization Chapter 13

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1 Western Civilization Chapter 13

2 Middle Ages Time period from New lifestyle for most of Europe

3 Franks Franks group of people that shaped the culture of Europe (German Invaders) Clovis King of the Franks (481), conquered a large area of Christian land (Into France) Charlemagne Greatest of the the Frankish Kings. He was able to create a New Rome by uniting most of Western Europe. He was also very close to the Pope (govt. and religion tied together)

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6 End of the Franks Louis thepious Charlemagne s s son. Very religious and well educated BUT we was politically weak. Magyars foreigners who invaded the Frankish empire (destroy) The empire split in half

7 Vikings From Scandinavia Most feared invaders, sailed down the coast and invaded and destroyed many towns in Northern Europe. Most were fisherman and/or sailors in their spare time

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10 European Ways of Life Feudalism Organized like a pyramid Kings and Queens at the top, peasants at the bottom. Lords controlled most of the land (large areas) and gave the land to vassals (people who owned small segments of land). Peasants worked the land. Manorial System Land was divided up into manors (lords, vassals, peasants all worked the land, self sufficient).

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12 Chivalry Knights upper class professional fighters. Chivalry code of conduct that the Knights had to follow (courageous in battle, loyal, respectful to women, etc..

13 Church Church Hierarchy Pope Cardinals (advisors to the Pope) Archbishops (watch over several diocese) Bishops (managea a group of churches diocese) Priest (head of local church) Monasticism life in convents (nuns) or monasteries (monks). Withdraw from society and live a more Christian lifestyle.

14 St. Benedict Created rules to govern the lives of monks/nuns. Benedictine Rule hours of prayer would make you a more holy person. Abbot Head of monastery

15 Religion Inquisition when the church tried to force people who did not believe (heretics), to convert. Often times they were executed if they did not change their ways.

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17 England Anglo Saxon England German invaders that lived in England. Came from the Angles and Saxons. Divided iidd England into Shires. William the Conqueror William of Normandy (France), conquered England and was able to combine French and English Culture

18 England Henry II (William s Grandson) king of England who made many decisions that weakened the church. Decreased the power of the clergy, had a loyal army. ThomasBecket Becket Archbishop of Canterbury, wouldn t follow what Henry wanted.was killed by Henry s Knights. Henry felt bad, gave back a lot of power to the Church. Eleanor of Aquitaine married to Henry II to strengthen the ties between England and France

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20 Changes in England Magna Carta document that protected the rights of the nobles and ordinary people. Set of rules that applied to everyone like the Constitution. Common Law laws based on customs and previous decisions no written codes.

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22 German Issues Otto I Elected leader of many tribes within Germany. Was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962. Henry III was the Holy Roman Emperor at the height of its power. Church should be a branch of the government.

23 Struggles for Power After Henry s death, religious and political leaders tried to gain more power. Popes and Emperors did not get along well at all. Innocent III strongest of the medieval popes. He greatly strengthened the church, making it a world power.

24 Crusades Series of military expeditions to regain the holy land. Done in response to the Turks spreading Islam into Christian Lands. Total of 4 different Crusades, only the first one was really successful.

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