AGE OF FEUDALISM, THE MANOR, THE CATHOLIC CHURCH, THE CRUSADES, HUNDRED YEARS WAR, AND THE PLAGUE

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1 AGE OF FEUDALISM, THE MANOR, THE CATHOLIC CHURCH, THE CRUSADES, HUNDRED YEARS WAR, AND THE PLAGUE

2 CENTRAL GOV T OF ROME FALLS APART FAIRLY QUICKLY NORMAL LIFE DISAPPEARS: LOSS OF SAFETY, SERVICES, LAWS, FOOD, SCHOOL, ARTS, ETC. DISRUPTION OF TRADE CITIES ABANDONED: PEOPLE MOVE TO COUNTRYSIDE DECLINE OF LEARNING

3 GERMAN TRIBES CREATE SMALL KINGDOMS THAT REPLACE ROMAN PROVINCES (GIVE SOME STABILITY) PERSONAL LOYALTY AND FAMILY TIES NOW IMPORTANT TO LIFE CLOVIS 1 ST TO CONVERT TO CHRISTIANITY AND UNITES FRANKS INTO ONE BIG KINGDOM

4 DYNASTY: SERIES OF RULERS FROM A SINGLE FAMILY BATTLE OF TOURS (732) CHARLES MARTEL DEFEATS MUSLIMS: STOPS ISLAM FROM ENTERING EUROPE WORKS WITH POPE AND CHURCH TO INCREASE HIS POLITICAL POWER

5 CREATES EMPIRE GREATER THAN ANCIENT ROME S IN EUROPE CROWNED EMPEROR BY POPE ON CHRISTMAS DAY 800 AD LOOKS LIKE POPES GIVE KINGS POWER WORKS TO LIMIT POWER OF NOBLES, SENT OUT ROYAL AGENTS, & CREATED SCHOOLS

6 HIS 3 GRANDSONS NOT STRONG & FOUGHT = DESTROYING EMPIRE TREATY OF VERDUN (843) BROKE EMPIRE INTO 3 PARTS: FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY THIS BREAKDOWN BROUGHT ON FEUDALISM

7 MUSLIMS: MOVE INTO ITALY/SPAIN MAGYARS: HORSEMEN FROM EAST VIKINGS: RAIDERS FROM NORWAY, SWEDEN, AND DENMARK ATTACK FAST IN UNIQUE SHIPS: HOLD 300 WARRIORS, CARRY 20 TONS, FLOAT IN 3 FEET OF WATER LATER = NORSEMEN NORMANS

8 POLITICAL SYSTEM WHERE A LORD GIVES LAND TO VASSAL IN RETURN FOR LOYALTY KNIGHTS = KEY TO FEUDALISM W/ THEIR HORSE-BASED PROTECTION MANORS ARISE: ECONOMIC FARMING VILLAGES THAT SUPPORT FEUDALISM

9 PEASANTS KEY TO SELF- SUPPORTING MANORS: THEY FARM, TEND ANIMALS, MAKE FOOD, BUILD & REPAIR, MAKE GOODS PAY LOTS OF TAXES: TITHE, MILLING, FIREWOOD, MARRIAGE, DEATH, ETC.

10 KNIGHTS TRAINING = 14 YEARS DUTY OF PROTECTION IS 40 DAYS OF FIGHTING YEARLY FOR LORD DUTY TO 3 PEOPLE: GOD, FEUDAL LORD, CHOSEN LADY EXPECTED TO PROTECT WEAK, BUT USUALLY MISTREATED SERFS

11 CHURCH PROVIDES ONLY STABLITY AFTER FALL OF ROME CHURCH MOVES INTO CONTROLLING POLITICS AS TIME PASSES CANON LAW = CHURCH LAW (APPLIES TO ALL EUROPEANS, EVEN KINGS)

12 CHURCH CONTROLS PATH TO PEOPLES SALVATION THROUGH SACRAMENTS: BAPTISM EUCHARIST MARRIAGE LAST RITES, ETC.

13 POPES AFFECT EUROPEAN POLITICS! EXCOMMUNICATION: REMOVAL OF MEMBERSHIP IN CHURCH: ( EX: VASSALS FREED FROM DUTIES TO EXCOMMUNICATED KING) INTERDICT: BANNING OF RELIGIOUS SERVICES AND SACRAMENTS IN A RULER S LAND

14 KINGS WANT TO CONTROL CHURCH THROUGH BISHOPS THEY APPOINT KING HENRY IV STANDS IN SNOW FOR 3 DAYS TIL FORGIVEN BY POPE CONCORDAT OF WORMS 1122 LETS POPE APPOINT BISHOPS W/ KING S APPROVAL SETS STAGE FOR BIG FIGHT

15 CHURCH BEGINS TO REFORM ITSELF (EX: SIMONY AND PRIESTS MARRYING) GOTHIC CATHEDRALS ( s) RISE TO GLORIFY GOD RECONQUISTA: LONG FIGHT TO DRIVE MUSLIMS FROM SPAIN: DO SO BY 1400 S

16 CRUSADES STARTED TO WIN BACK HOLY LAND FROM MUSLIMS ONLY 1 ST CRUSADE SUCCESSFUL, BUT DEPLORABLY HORRIFIC MUSLIM LEADER SALADIN TAKES BACK JERUSALEM 1187: FIGHTS RICHARD LION-HEART (3 RD ) EUROPE GETS ACCESS = HOLY LAND

17 INCREASED POWER OF WOMEN LEFT BEHIND OPENED TRADE/IDEAS=EAST-WEST LESSENED POWER OF POPE NOBLES POWER DOWN, KINGS UP INCREASED CHRISTIAN/MUSLIM TENSIONS HURT BYZANTINE EMPIRE, JEWS

18 MORE FOOD TO EAT: 3-FIELD SYSTEM & USE OF HORSE = V. IMP. MORE AND QUALITY GOODS: GUILDS ( UNIONS ) START TO INFLUENCE CITY POWER TRADE INCREASES: FAIRS AND BANKING SYSTEMS (LETTERS OF CREDIT/EXCHANGE)

19 CITIES INCREASE IN POPULATION CITIES GIVE SOCIAL & ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR MANOR SERFS & FREEMEN (& CITY MERCHANTS ) MANY UNIVERSITIES ARE BUILT LEARNING REVIVES: GREEKS, ROMANS, JEWS, MUSLIMS RE-READ

20 BATTLE OF HASTINGS 1066: WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR STARTS CENTRALIZED GOV T. IN ENGLAND BY CHANGING FEUDAL LOYALTY HENRY II: CREATES JURY SYSTEM; HIS ROYAL JUDGES DECIDE CASES, COLLECT TAXES COMMON LAW DEVELOPS FROM COURT CASES

21 MAGNA CARTA 1215: NOBLES FORCE ENGLISH KING JOHN I TO ACCEPT DUE PROCESS OF LAW (BASIC POLITICAL RIGHTS) MODEL PARLIAMENT: LEGISLATIVE GROUP FORMED THAT INCLUDED COMMONERS W/ NOBLES (MOVE TO DEMOCRACY)

22 FRENCH KING PHILLIP II: ROYAL AGENTS (BAILIFFS) COLLECT TAXES AND CONTROL COURTS ESTATES-GENERAL (LIKE U.S. CONGRESS) ADDS COMMONERS LATE 1200 S (WON T DEVELOP REAL POWER FOR 500 YEARS)

23 GREAT SCHISM : STARTS WHEN KING OF FRANCE HELPS ELECT A POPE AND FROCES HIM TO LIVE IN FRANCE TO CONTROL HIM SOON 3 POPES ON SCENE GERMAN EMPEROR AND CHURCH FORCE 3 POPES OUT 1 POPE FINALLY ELECTED

24 CARRIED BY RAT FLEAS FROM MONGOLIA INTO CHINA FOLLOWS TRADE ROUTES COVERS EUROPE BY 1351 PAINFUL DEATH IN 3-4 DAYS RETURNS TO EUROPE EVERY 3-4 YEARS BUT NOT AS DEVASTATING AS 1347

25 KILLS ~ 1/3 OF EUROPE (25 MILLION) CITIES DEPOPULATED TRADE DECLINES; INFLATION! SERFS AND PEASANTS REVOLT, GET BETTER WAGES CHURCH LOSES PRESTIGE AND POWER JEWS PERSECUTED

26 ENGLAND FIGHTS FRANCE OVER CLAIM TO THRONE (IN PHASES) ENGLISH LONGBOW CHALLENGES FRENCH CHIVALRY & WINS JOAN OF ARC TURNS TIDE FOR FRANCE KINGS IDENTIFIED W/ COUNTRY THEY LEAD (NATIONALISM), INCREASING POWER

27 THE POWER OF THE CHURCH HURT BY GREAT SCHISM, BUBONIC PLAGUE, AND HUGE DISPLAY OF WEALTH FEUDALISM AND AGE OF CHIVALRY DESTROYED BY LONGBOW MODERN EUROPE WAS ABOUT TO BEGIN

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