The Church. The Church

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1 One of the few sources of Leadership and stability Helps extend presence throughout Europe Economically Strong =own land= lords Influence both spiritual and political matters One of the few sources of Leadership and stability Helps extend presence throughout Europe Economically Strong =own land= lords Influence both spiritual and political matters Eventually becomes a power struggle between Pope and strong rulers 1

2 Parish Priest Smallest division in Church Priest responsible for Religious instruction Moral & spiritual life Low, but important (foundation) 5 of the 7 sacraments Baptism, Holy Communion, Penance, Matrimony, Anointing of the sick. Bishop performs Confirmation & Holy Orders (259 in U.S.) Bishop performs Confirmation & Holy Orders Manages group of Parishes called Diocese Selection could be made by powerful nobles- family connections Are lords & vassals in own right. 2

3 Several Dioceses = Archdioceses Headed by Arch Bishop Had power and authority over Bishops Cardinals (6 in U.S.) Advisor to Pope on legal and spiritual matters. Since 1100 s, only Cardinals elect Pope 3

4 Curia Group of Counselors from highest Cardinals MONASTICISM 2 TYPES OF CLERGY SECULAR = the present world Priest, Bishops, & Pope are secular clergy Give sacraments, preach gospel REGULAR CLERGY MONKS = Men who live under strict rules NUNS = Women who live under strict rules, but not considered clergy 4

5 MONASTICISM Monastic lifestyle Monk & Nuns lived a life withdrawn from the world & its temptations Served God through fasting, prayer and self denial Monk lived alone in early centuries of church (hermit) Extreme physical sufferings to prove dedication Eventually form Religious Communities called Monastery Nuns live in Convents Benedictine Rule Young Roman named Benedict was disgusted with worldly corruption Left Rome to worship God as a hermit Reputation spread & followers came Mountains of Italy Monte Cassino) Created rules to govern monks lives. Fairly strict everything a monk or nun used or wore belonged to community Abbot = head of community Controls and distributed all property Abbess = similar role for women in convents 5

6 Benedictine Rule Spend hours in prayer, Rest of day is work assigned by Abbot Monks & Nuns take care of needy in Medieval Society Monasteries become rich, as nobles give land in return for spiritual favors. Monks become missionaries St Patrick to Ireland St Augustine to England Church & Medieval Life Both Secular & regular clergy play major role in life in Medieval World Political Role Pope claim that the church help political as well as spiritual power over King Church leaders held positions of power as lords & advisors to Kings & nobles 6

7 Cannon Law = Church law Excommunication = cut off from church Greatly feared by Christians, removes you from society Interdict = against entire region Clergy forbidden to marry or perform sacraments Used to turn people against rulers Cannon Law = Church law Heretics = people who denied the truths of the church s principles or preached beliefs not approved by the church. Inquisition- Search for Heretics Confess = perform penance, a ritual designed to bring forgiveness Do not confess= turned over to government, Punishment and/or public execution (burn at the stake) 7

8 Cannon Law = Church law Unbelievers = eternal damnation Heresy was a threat to the church as treason is to the government Cannon Law = Church law Tithe = 10% of Christian income Large income from church lands 1200 s height of church s power Wealthiest single institution 8

9 Ch 13 Section 4 Roman Empire Italy s Byzantine Empire holds part Arab Muslims ruled in Sicily Otto I crowned Emperor of Romans Helped stop Roman Nobles(Northern Italy) Controls this area into the 1800 s 9

10 Henry III Viewed church as a branch of Government Church should actively support ruler Height of power Removes Popes & elected a German Pope Henry III chose next 3 Popes Henry IV 5yrs old German nobles seize opportunity Church also see opportunity Pope Gregory VII struggles with Henry Gregory strengthens church Church is supreme spiritual power on Earth Rulers & ordinary people were subjects to the will of the church & Pope CONFLICT Henry believes he had right to appoint Bishops. 10

11 CONFLICT Henry believes he had right to appoint Bishops. Gregory opposed Excommunication of Henry Gregory released nobles from loyalty to Henry (wants new emperor) Henry pleads for mercy 1077 excommunication revoked Concordat of Worms Limits imperial power over German Church Emperor appoints Bishops to fief Pope appoints Bishops of Spiritual Recognized spiritual leadership of Popes 11

12 Frederick I Seeks to capture Northern Italy Lombard cities (Milan) Lombard League is formed after Frederick Destroys Milan Cities form together with Pope s blessing to stop Frederick Cities power is growing Involved in 3rd Crusade (dies, drowns) Innocent III Strongest Medieval Popes Strengthens church power Emperors and Kings are no more then servants of the church Feels he has right to settle all political as well as spiritual problems Excommunication and Interdiction to settle disputes 12

13 King John of England interdicted Forced to be a vassal of Pope, tithe to Rome Philip Augusta of France, Tried to have Marriage annulled Innocent forced Philip to take wife back and restore her as Queen Papal power declines after Innocents death ATTEMPTS TO UNIFY ITALY AND GERMANY FAIL INTO THE 1800 S 13

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