SSWH 7. Analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics.

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1 SSWH 7 Analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics.

2 SSWH 7 A Explain the manorial system and feudal relationships, include: the status of peasants and feudal monarchies and the importance of Charlemagne

3 Vocabulary Charlemagne - united most of Europe; was crowned Emperor by the Pope, known as the Light of the Dark Ages Feudalism - Political system of local government based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services Manor - the home of the nobility Fief - land given to a vassal Fealty - promise of loyalty Vassal - holder of land in the feudal system Bubonic Plague - deadly disease spread to Europe during the 1340s. It is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population Crusades - a series of religious wars between Christian Europe and Muslim Middle East in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.

4 What s happening in Europe? After the fall of the Roman Empire: centralized political authority, long distance trade, urbanization, and literacy slowly declined Germanic tribes flooded into the region and established hundreds of small kingdoms and tribal chiefdoms political authority in these kingdoms tended to be very weak, based mostly on the king or another strong man s ability to provide protection Borders and thrones shifted often as war between and within kingdoms was common.

5 Transition Period in the European Middle Ages Time in history between the end of the Classical Age and the beginning of the Modern World one tribe The Franks (settled in France) lasting impact on Europe helped shaped this new culture of post-roman Europe Charles Martel became the mayor was even more powerful than the king - controlled army & made laws ended the Muslim threat trying to invade - made him a hero his son, Pepin, was crowned king

6 Transition Period in the European Middle Ages Pope needed the Franks to help against the Lombards (Germanic tribe attacking) Frankish ruler, Pepin (AD 751) defeated the Lombards. territory given by the Pope is called Donation of Pepin created the Papal State Paves the way for Charlemagne Pepin s son and greatest of all Frankish Kings

7 The importance of establishing the Carolingian Dynasty political unity and cultural revival emerged under the Carolingian Dynasty Carolingian kings gained & expanded their power through an alliance with the Roman Catholic Church. pope crowned the first Carolingian King, Pepin, the king by grace of God. This act established a tradition in which the pope claimed the right to confer secular political power on kings. Carolingian power reached its peak under Charlemagne who built an empire that spanned most of Central Europe.

8 Charlemagne Light of the Dark Ages great political and military skill United much of western Europe for the first time in 400 years. he established a relatively unified empire in medieval Europe Forced people to convert to Christianity His officials were called missi dominici or the lord s messengers.

9 Charlemagne Light of the Dark Ages His rule was a model for later kings in medieval Europe Cultural rebirth throughout Europe supported education created libraries sponsored collection & copying of ancient Roman manuscripts Pope Leo II crowned him emperor symbolized Charlemagne's importance & the power of the Catholic Church

10 Feudalism

11

12 The Feudal System Manorial System Feudalism Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land Political system of local government based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services.

13 Feudalism Feudalism was a complex system of relationships between people of different classes. Invasions by Germanic Tribes Land-owners found protection by entering into feudal arrangements

14 A person who granted land was a lord and the grant of land was called a fief. A powerful noble granted land to a lesser noble. Ownership of the land remained with the noble who made the grant. The person who received the fief was a

15 Feudal Relationships A person who granted land was a lord or a knight and the grant of land was called a fief. The person who received the fief was a vassal creating a contract between them.

16 Feudal Relationships The contract between the person giving the land and the vassal created a fealty a promise of loyalty.

17 Feudal System creates a web Kings granted land (fiefs) to vassals in exchange for military service and oaths of loyalty (fealty). Lords (nobility) of large land grants might in turn grant out fiefs to lesser nobles or knights who served in their personal army. The system became more complicated as it became hereditary over time. Titles of nobility and the fiefs associated with the title might pass from one family to another through marriage.

18 Feudal Obligations Oath of Fealty Lords, vassals in feudal system had duties to fulfill to one another Knight s chief duty as vassal to provide military service to his lord Had to promise to remain loyal; promise called oath of fealty Financial Obligations Knight had certain financial obligations to lord Knight obligated to pay ransom for lord s release if captured in battle Gave money to lord on special occasions, such as knighting of son Lord s Obligations Lord had to treat knights fairly, not demanding too much time, money Had to protect knight if attacked by enemies Had to act as judge in disputes between knights

19 Feudal System creates a web original inhabitants of the land granted to these vassals became serfs serfs were legally bound to the land and obliged to work as farmers for the lord In other areas these inhabitants might be free peasant farmers performed manual labor in exchange for use of the land Rarely ate meat Limited life expectancy Many fought in the service of their knights paid taxes to the lord in the form of agriculture SERFS could NOT be sold. Serfs had NO legal rights -- unlike peasants who had some legal rights

20 Feudal System Impact Europe became highly decentralized This decentralization forced much of Europe to become largely self sufficient decentralized nature of feudal states Roman Catholic Church emerged as both a spiritual and temporal power in medieval society

21 SSWH 7 B Explain the political impact of Christianity and the role of the church in medieval society.

22 Role of the Church While political power and the economy of Medieval Europe was highly decentralized, the spiritual unity of the continent remained quite unified. popes in Rome maintained this unity through a hierarchy of clergy The authority of the clergy over the royalty, nobility and common people was reinforced by several factors.

23 Role of the Church medieval Catholicism taught that only the clergy could interpret the scripture reinforced by the fact that medieval bibles were written in Latin, clergy alone could administer sacraments or rituals that the church said were required to achieve salvation in heaven

24 Role of the Church church enforced a law code (canon law), on all believers regulated the behavior of all church members and was enforced by a network of courts that had the authority to arrest and punish violators The punishment of the most extreme forms of heresy included torture and execution.

25 Role of the Church church maintained its power through the threat and use of excommunication and interdict Excommunication - denying any opportunity to achieve eternal salvation An interdict denied the sacraments to entire regions thus condemning all of the inhabitants to hell.

26 Role of the Church for the Everyday Man The church was an ever present facet of the average man's life. The average person was involved with the church from baptism until death. Medieval learning, managed by the Catholic Church, focused less on new scientific discovery and more on mastering existing knowledge. Priests and Monks were responsible for the preservation of learning and ancient literature. an important force in maintaining cultural unity in Europe

27 Role of the Church monarchs of Europe attempted to limit the authority of the pope by placing their allies in the clergy Bishops served as regional church leaders throughout Europe - monarchs used their power to appoint them Lay Investiture - monarchs wanted the authority to appoint the bishops within their realms The church tolerated this practice until 1075 when Pope Gregory VII banned lay investiture.

28 Political Impact of the Church Had broad political powers most powerful institution Power extended through every social/political levels Anyone who opposed the church heresy Source of leadership and stability for the community. Church had power to tax Tithe Large income from owning lands Leading landowner Wealthiest single institute in Europe

29 The Lay Investiture Controversy A conflict between the Roman Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Empire. It reflected the struggle over who had the power to appoint church positions. It involved the Pope's edict preventing Henry IV from appointing bishops. Henry challenged the ruling...

30 Pope Gregory VII Henry IV Devout Brought spiritual reform to the church Increased the power and authority of the papacy. Felt that rulers and ordinary people alike were subject to the will of the church and its pope. Used excommunication as a way to resolve conflicts of church and state. Came to the throne at the age of 5. At age of 15, Henry moved to strengthened his imperial rule. Believed that he had the power to appoint bishops of the church lay investiture. Actions brought him into conflict with Pope Gregory VII.

31 Lay Investiture Controversy Investiture Struggle How did it happen? Pope Gregory VII originally allowed and accepted Lay Investiture Henry IV kept refusing to follow papal commands Henry IV and all the bishops that he appointed rejected the authority of the Pope and demanded the Pope abdicate. Pope Gregory VII then deposed the king and excommunicated the king and all the bishops with him. Pope Gregory VII banned Lay Investiture. After mounting pressure, Henry IV went to the Pope in Canossa, Italy to beg forgiveness. Pope made Henry wait three days in the dead of winter. Then he revoked Henry s excommunication.

32 The Lay Investiture Controversy So what did this mean? Monarchs lost the ability to appoint their own bishops. Eroded power of the monarchs Established more firmly the power of the church

33 SSWH 7 C Describe how increasing trade led to the growth of towns and cities, include: the impact of the Bubonic Plague

34 Growth of Towns and Cities increase in trade and urbanization of Europe was precipitated by population growth Population growth was due to an increase in the food supply because of an increase in the availability in farm land and technological advances

35 Growth of Towns and Cities regional fairs emerge fairs were generally held on religious holidays in or near the few small towns that existed in Medieval Europe Peasants from nearby manors would travel to the fairs to buy and sell goods traveling merchants that brought exotic goods from the east

36 Growth of Towns and Cities regional fairs became larger and more frequent spurred the growth of these towns As these towns grew became increasingly independent existed outside of the authority and traditions of the feudal system

37 Growth of Towns and Cities 3 Important business developments arose from these regional fairs: a new system of manufacturing a banking system developed and the practice of investing wealth started

38 Growth of Towns and Cities With trade cities began to grow! Merchants and workers began to unite in association called guilds. Guilds were organizations of merchants and artisans that worked together to regulate business practices to ensure the profitability and viability of their respective commodities.

39 Growth of Towns and Cities the existing aristocracy was wealthy because of land holdings As population and trade grew so did a new class, the merchant class merchants wealth came from the increase of trade This middle class didn't exactly "fit" in the traditional scheme of feudal society.

40 Growth of Towns and Cities The new middle class and their increasing wealth and power was a factor in the decline of feudalism. lived in cities that were outside of the jurisdiction of the feudal system feudal monarchs attempted to bring these cities under their authority, however few were successful

41

42 The Black Death aka Bubonic Plague Traveled along the Silk Road---originated in China Entered Europe mostly through trade ports Boats landed in the ports with infected passengers and rodents 30-60% population of Europe killed spread of the Plague was the biggest disrupter to the social structure of Europe Took 150 years for Europe s population to recover

43 Effects of the Bubonic Plague diminished populations in European cities decreased trade and drove up prices severely undermined the feudal system in the countryside led to economic growth and development in the long-term

44 Effects of the Bubonic Plague increased the demand for peasant labor increased their ability to demand higher wages nobles refused to increase wages serfs and peasants fought back in violent rebellions grip of the nobility of the peasantry was forever weakened

45

46 SSWH 7 D Describe the causes and impact of the Crusades on the Islamic World and Europe.

47 The Crusades Definition: A series of military expeditions carried out by European Christians against the Muslims from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries A war over religion

48 The Crusades 1037 the Seljuk Turks established an empire in the Middle East Seljuk Turks power threatened the Byzantine Empire 1093 the emperor solicited help from Pope Urban II Urban called for the first Crusade to free Jerusalem from Muslim rule The first Crusade set off in 1096 and lasted until 1099.

49 The Crusades The Crusaders successfully drove the Turks from Jerusalem. This success was short lived however, in less than 100 years Jerusalem was back in the hands of the Muslim Turks. The Christians of Europe organized several other Crusades over the next 300 years but none of them were ever able to retake Jerusalem.

50 The Crusades Motivation for the Crusades was a mix of genuine religious zealotry, economic self-interest, and political opportunism. Devout Christians found motivation: Seljuk Turks denied Christian pilgrims access to Jerusalem the pope s promise of guaranteed salvation for all those who died on Crusade

51 The Crusades Those seeking economic advantage hoped that the Crusades would offer opportunities for gold and land. Crusades offered young men a chance to obtain land and titles in newly conquered territory. Italian merchants sought profit from: financing & transporting Crusader armies lucrative trade routes

52 The Crusades The popes hoped that the Crusades: would bring peace to Europe by uniting quarreling knights against a common enemy reinforce the power of the papacy in secular affairs The Crusades stimulated Mediterranean trade.

53 General Goals of the Crusades Reclaim Palestine for the Christians (places where Jesus and the Apostles lived) Get rid of troublesome knights Opportunity for land, wealth, and a new position in society Adventure New trade routes To capture Jerusalem the Holy Land from the Islamic Rulers

54 The Crusades The first Crusade facilitated trade between Asia and Europe increased demand for Asian and Middle Eastern commodities Effects of the Crusades Europeans were exposed to Muslim scholarship Rediscovery of Greek and Roman works helped spur an intellectual awakening in Europe

55 The Crusades Effects of the Crusades helped to undermine the feudal order in Europe offered opportunities to all levels of society Kings found greater power and influence Serfs gained freedom and sometimes wealth Weakened power of the church

56 Impact of the Crusades Islamic World: slowed the advance of Islam prevented the formation of a unified Islamic power Byzantine Empire fell to the turks Commercial trading shifted from Muslims to Italians in the Mediterranean Positive effect: the expansion of trade into the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern areas

57 The Crusades Lasting Impact of the Crusades: To the east, the Crusades left a legacy of animosity. Motivated by economic opportunity, Western European Christians sacked and looted Constantinople increased the divide between the Roman Catholic Church in the West and the Eastern Orthodox Church

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