Middle Ages: Feudalism

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1 Middle Ages: Feudalism - Study Guide - -Franks and Charlemagne - 1. List all names for the Middle Ages. 2. What did Charles The Hammer Martel do? 3. Explain Charlemagne s accomplishments. 4. Explain the Vikings. 5. Explain the Franks characteristics. -Medieval life - 6. Explain the governmental system feudalism? 7. What is a manor and how is it set up? 8. What are fiefs/manors? 9. What is the social order on a Manor 10. Why people stayed on the manors? 11. What are knights and their code? 12. Explain a serf and their life. 13. Why was trade difficult to do? -Medieval Church- 14. What were Tithe? 15. Who were Abbots? 16. What is Simony? 17. What is Sacraments? 18. What were Benedictine Rules and what did he support? 19. What is heresy and excommunication? -The Crusades- 20. Who were the groups fighting? 21. Why they were fighting? 22. Explain Sultan Saladin and Richard the Lion Heart. 23. Pop Urban II significance 24. Explain the Children s Crusades & Stephen de Cloyes? 25. Explain the Effects of the Crusades Contrast the lives of women during the medieval period with women of today.

2 Date: Western Europe: Medieval Times - It is a time period of: - The word Medieval is for commonly referred to as the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in Western Europe and the rise of the Renaissance. - This period is also known as the and the. -Barbarian Kingdoms- - Most Barbarian people were from the North. - They carved up Western Europe into small kingdoms. - Kingdoms categorized by - : Gauls, Britons, Bretons, Angles-Saxons - : Goths, Frank, Vandals, Ostrogoths * wasn t needed for warriors, so learning * - They had no or, locale languages mixes with. - Lived in small communities governed by -Franks- - in 481 became the Ruler of the Barbarian group,.became ruler at the age of - Converted to at the urging of his. His new conversion gained him the loyalty from old Roman citizens and - Charles Martel, defeats a Muslim army at the,. - The Battle of Tours prevents the. - The Frank s Empire included. -The Effects of the Barbarian Invasions- Constant fighting, slowed down, diminish and learning virtually. Western Europe will become isolated and backward.

3 -Pepin ( ) Martel- - On the death of Pepin's father, in 741, power was passed down to Pepin. - traveled all the way to Paris to anoint King Pepin in a lavish ceremony. - Pepin gave a for his Anointment. - Pepin s son Charles{ } Martel rules after his death -Charlemagne- - In, on in Rome, crowned Charlemagne Imperator Romanorum ( ). - Doubled the size of the Kingdom{ }. - Encouraged opened church run schools, libraries,. - Local officials called helped Charlemagne run his empire. - Believed himself & was chosen to spread - When Charlemagne he was succeeded by his only son. - After A.D 843 Charlemagne s grandsons fought for control of the Empire. - The settled the civil war: a) took the western part (France) b) took the eastern (Germany) c) took the middle (north sea to Italy) - Charlemagne s Lasting Legacy- - He is Responsible for starting the Gov t system, - Spreading into Northern Europe. -Viking Invasions- - (Berserkers) raid Western Europe - sought riches and adventure. - Used long with one sail and long oars to travel. - They on Charlemagne s once great Empire. Charlemagne

4 Feudalism Feudalism - A system based on political, economic, and social scale based on service.

5 Feudalism and Manor Life -Feudal Social Order- King - the Ruler {Nobles} - owns and runs the land - are mounted warriors. - Peasants labor force -Manorial System- - Manors{ } consisted of several hundred thousand acres of self-sufficient land own by a lord. On it were the lord s house, pastures for livestock, fields for crops and a village for the peasants and a church. - {Peasants} worked the land in exchange for food shelter and protection. Few lived past the age of 40 because they lived very hard lives. Most were the manor. (, couldn t be sold). - Peasants rarely traveled more than from the manor, so the manors had to be self-sufficient communities. - Manors were home to - Peasants were heavily taxed, including a a church their income. - Due to, was nearly impossible, so the manor had to produce everything it needed{self-sufficient}. Worked hard in the fields All kinds of farm work Married young Arranged marriages Had a - money or property that a wife's family gives to her husband when the wife and husband marry. Called ladies Ran manor when lord was out fighting Raised money for ransom Arranged marriages Had a dowry -Chivalry- - A - A good knight would live by this code; and protecting the weak. -Castles- - Built for not for - Built of stone, with thick walls and small towers. Moats were built around them for defense. - Contained many rooms, a and were. *.There were towns but they were small and unimportant.

6 The Medieval Church -The Roman Catholic Church- - The Church was the and a symbol of Continuity, shared beliefs bond people. - The Church & - Popes, Bishops and priests provided: 1) 2) 3) - The Catholic Church taught that all people were and the only way to receive Salvation{ was to perform Sacraments, like: Holy Communion, Reconciliation (confession), - Due to poor during the Middle Ages, most people learned about the Christian faith from,, paintings and. - Cannon laws were set up by the church - The church supported itself with a tax called. - The leads all Catholics. A title inherited from the apostle. -Monastic life- - Males are and Females are Duties: and pray. Strengthen the church living apart from it. - : wear long plain robes, one or two meals a day and meditation. Some had rules of total. * Few people could, so Monasteries copied books ( ) by hand to the ancient religious works and classical writings. - were in charge of Monasteries, where monks lived. - were in charge of Convents, where the nuns lived. -Benedict s Rules- - A.D.529 Italian monk set up rules for the Monasteries life. - His sister adapts rules for nuns living in convents. - They were to, could not own goods, live a life of poverty. - Not allowed to marry, & obedience to God and Church.

7 -Friars and Missionaries- - Each of these who brought the word of God to you. - The best known was the - Missionaries: converted the people of Ireland and converted the Anglos and Saxons of England , A Catholic monk was the greatest philosopher of the Middle Ages and taught Theology{the }. He believed in Natural Law{ }, your god given rights. -Church Power- - In 590, Gregory I, also called, becomes pope. - Under Gregory, becomes Secular{worldly}. - Kings and emperors were expected to obey. - The Roman Catholic Church and European Governments and control. Example was excommunication by. - In the 900 s many people wanted the church to be Popes would be elected by Cardinals{ } strict rules were set for Heresy { }. - Church run courts, called, were set up to find heretics. - - You were outlawed from any contact with a Christian society and you can t go to. - By the end of the Middle Ages the Church officials were and were living a life of. - This better life style came from an increase in church taxes and Simony { }. Church Power * The Roman Catholic Church helped govern Western Europe until their corruption causes disunity within the church. The Monarchs use this as an opportunity to take full control of their kingdoms.

8 The Crusades -Crusades- - A series of Holy Wars fought by the - The Goal was to control Palestine and the Holy City of - The Crusades comes from Latin word, to take up the cross. - Muslims- believed Muhammad from Jerusalem. - Christians- Jesus was in Jerusalem. The First Crusade-A.D Known as the Crusades - called on all Christians to fight because the Turks (Muslims) and closed it to all Christians. - All Christians were promised immediate - They wore on their clothing and took the city from the Muslims A.D The Second Crusade-A.D Turks conquered parts of and fought off Christian attempts to reacquire the Holly land. The Third Crusade A.D The. - The Muslims led by captured Jerusalem. - German King drowns on his way to battle. - England s leads his troops. - allowed Christians access to the city to worship. The Fourth Crusades- A.D wanted to free the Holy Land of non-christians infidels. - The city was destroyed by the western Christians. - Eastern It was a totally pointless exercise, a total disaster for the future of Christianity. -SUMMARY-

9 The Children s Crusades -The Children s Crusade- - The Children's Crusade was supposedly launched in 1212 by the 12-year old French More than were thought to have been sold into when they thought that they were boarding ships that would take them to the Holy Land. It ended in tragedy for the Christian children:. -Knights Templar- - Poor Knights of Jesus Christ - Took vows of, chastity & obedience - Answered to except the. - By 1196 a string of Templar castles set up in the Holy Land. - Devoted to war guarded and Camped on Temple Mount. - Fearless warriors nearly during crusades. - Mistrusted by other crusaders - Many rumors about secret religious rites. - Became enormously wealthy and powerful as prominent. - Friday, April 13, King Phillip IV of France had them their assets to diminish their power. -Effects from the Crusades- - A total of - European leaders and concentrate on Political and Economic. - European contact with other civilizations and revitalized Western Europe: Literature, Art, Science, Technology, etc., because of the vast movement of people during the crusades. Goods: Spices, Sugar, Melons, Tapestries, Silk and other Luxury items. - It broke down and increased the authority of the a) Many nobles b) their freedom (nobles needed money for weapons and supplies). -SUMMARY-

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