Chapter 7: Early Middle Ages ( )

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1 Chapter 7: Early Middle Ages ( ) 1. INTRODUCTION The Merovingians were replaced in 751 by the Carolingians,, from the kingdom of Austrasia. Their most famous king was Charles the Great (Charlemagne)) who later almost doubled the territory ruled by the Franks. His empire, after his death, however, weakened & fell apart.. His descendants continued many of his projects but were unable to maintain his empire any longer.

2 Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, was among the greatest of military leaders in the Middle Ages. He conquered much of western and central Europe. As king, Charlemagne revived the political and cultural life that had disappeared with the fall of the Western Roman Empire four centuries before.

3 2.THE EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE ( ) A. Creation and Administration of the Empire Charlemagne's empire of the Atlantic Ocean & the North Sea was gained by military might & maintained through centralized administration, personal loyalties, bishops and other important churchmen.. Carolingian rulers, each of whom was anointed by a bishop on taking the throne, listened to the Pope in Vatican, Rome and saw themselves as ruling "by the grace of God."

4 Charlemagne's Empire in 800 Under the rule of Pepin the Short and his son Charlemagne, the Carolingians of the 8th and 9th centuries conquered vast territories and combined large portions of western Europe into a single unit. In 800 Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Empire of the West, a region later known as the Holy Roman Empire. coronation.

5 2.THE EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE B. Revival of the Western Empire When In 800, the pope placed the crown on his head, the first emperor from 475, Charlemagne desired to be an Christian emperor instead of a Roman emperor. In 1254, when the emperor's power fell to the bottom & every king became an emperor in his own kingdom, the title Holy Roman Empire (-1806) was created. It covered central Europe & Germany today without Italy.

6 Charlemagne and the Pope The Frankish king Charlemagne was a devout Catholic who maintained a close relationship with the papacy throughout his life. In 772, when Pope Adrian I was threatened by invaders, the king rushed to Rome to provide assistance. Shown here, the pope asks Charlemagne for help at a meeting near Rome.

7 2.THE EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE C. Unity and Diversity Charlemagne saw Christianity as the key factor unifying the empire. When he forced the tribes conquered to be baptized,, any who returned to their old religions were executed.. The Empire consisted of many different regions, each with its own language, customs, and laws, different from the practice in Christian worship, so little unity was achieved as Charlemagne expected.

8 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Considered the primary source for English history between the 10th and 12th centuries, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle also contains earlier examples of prose. This page depicts Charlemagne, king of the Franks in the late 8th century, killing the heathen Saxons.

9 3.THECAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE The purpose: : to create an orderly and unified Christian empire, Revive wisdom of Roman writers; with Christian literature and learning; create new works of art and literature; The legacy: : important Christian texts provided: the Vulgate Bible, chants for the Mass, & the Benedictine Rule followed by monasteries. Its scholars' writings as a solid foundation for the schools and universities in 1100s to develop.

10 The Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Charlemagne s palace at Aachen, Germany, built about , is one of the finest examples of Carolingian architecture. The most dramatic part of the structure is the 16-sided Palatine chapel, shown here.

11 Monk in a Scriptorium Many of the books used for education in medieval Europe were reproduced by monks. They diligently copied entire texts in a monastery room called a scriptorium, which was designed for this purpose.

12 Portrait of Saint Matthew This is a page from the illuminated manuscript known as the Ebbo Gospels (about ). It depicts Saint Matthew writing his gospel account, and is a good example of the use of portraits of authors in illuminated manuscripts that was popular in the early Middle Ages.

13 4.THECAROLINGIAN ECONOMY A. Land Use and Agricultural Practices The economy was largely based on land. Large estates were organized into manors,, which had two parts: one belonging to the lord and one to the peasants.. The peasants were dependents of the lord, farming both parts, and owed the lord labor on his land, and dues and other services. B. Trade markets held/silver coins minted for commerce

14 Serfdom in the Middle Ages During the Middle Ages in Europe, peasants became legally bound to live and work in one place in servitude to wealthy landowners. In return for working the land of the owner, known as the lord, these peasants, called serfs, received a crude house, a small adjoining plot of ground, a share of the surrounding fields, some farm animals, and protection from outlaws and other lords. The serf gave part of his own crop to the lord as payment of rent and was subject to many other payment obligations and taxes. Serfdom differed from slavery because serfs had the right to own property, could not be sold, and could theoretically purchase their freedom from their lords.

15 Gathering Honey The women shown here is harvesting honey from beehives in the 15th century. During the Middle Ages, families that had the resources to do so often kept bees. Bees and beehives were an important source of honey, which was used as a sweetener and to ferment to make mead, an alcoholic beverage. The beeswax was used to make candles.

16 5.THE BREAKUP OF THE EMPIRE A. Invasion In 800s, the empire met invasions by Muslims, Magyars &Vikings. The Muslims were finally thrown out of their strongholds in France and southern Italy. The Magyars were defeated in 955 and settled down in today s s Hungary. The Vikings settled Normandy. Scandinavia itself was drawn into Europe as its people mingled with Europeans and converted to Christianity.

17 Routes of the Vikings The Vikings were both a warrior and farming society from the region now known as Scandinavia. They were also seafaring explorers who sailed beyond their homelands not only to raid, but also to build settlements in other parts of the world. The Danish Vikings went south toward Germany, France, England, Spain, and into regions on the northwestern Mediterranean coast. Swedish Vikings went to eastern Europe, while the Norwegians sailed to Greenland and North America.

18 Viking Raiding Party Viking ships, because of their shallow draft, were able to successfully navigate rivers and streams that many other vessels could not. This allowed the Vikings to raid settlements far upriver from the sea, settlements that frequently were not prepared for an attack from the water.

19 5.THE BREAKUP OF THE EMPIRE B. Consequences Invasion B1. England Alfred and his successors pushed out most of the Vikings and unify England. B2. France The king unable to mobilize his forces to fight the Viking raids; local dukes organized their own regional defenses. France fragmented into small, nearly independent principalities.

20 5.THE BREAKUP OF THE EMPIRE C. Social Change Most peasants as half-free serfs,, owed dues & services to the local strong man; warriors as an elite of knights; ; a hereditary social system of lords, vassals, and fiefs, feudalism, took shape in certain principalities and later in kingdoms. D. Changes in the Church Churches became part of governmental system; bishops served as governors & spiritual leaders.

21 Weapons of Medieval Warfare During the Middle Ages, warriors in Europe developed into an elite class of knights. Living under the threat of invasions from foreigners, the people of Europe also developed a different kind of weaponry. Mounted warriors, known as cavalry, could move quickly and strike hard with axes, pikes, lances, and two-edged swords longer than those used by men on foot.

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