Chapter 9 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section One Transforming the Roman World (pages )

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1 Due Date: Chapter 9 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section One Transforming the Roman World (pages ) I. THE NEW GERMANIC KINGDOMS Name: 1. What did the Germanic Ostrogoths and Visigoths retain from the Roman civilization they had conquered? A. The Kingdom of the Franks 1. Who established the Kingdom of the Franks? 2. Why did Clovis convert to Christianity? 3. What organization strongly supported Clovis following his conversion to Christianity? Clovis B. Germanic Society 1. Which culture combined with Germanic society to form a new society in Europe? 2. According to Germanic law, how would people be punished for offenses such as murder? 3. According to Germanic law, how would the guilt or innocence of a person be established? II. THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH A. Organization of the Church 1. Explain how the Catholic Church was organized: Local Christian churches and the surrounding communities were called and led by. A would control a bishopric, or diocese, made up of several local churches. The would lead the bishops of each province/bishopric. 2. Eventually, the bishop of Rome became the leader of the Roman Catholic Church. What were their title?

2 3. How did pope Gregory I, strengthen the power of the pope, and the Roman Catholic Church? B. The Monks and Their Missions 1. How did Saint Benedict change the way monks practiced monasticism? 2. Summarize how monks would live according to the Benedictine rules. 3. What did the monks do as social workers for European communities? 4. How did most of Western Europe become Christianized by 1050? III. CHARLEMAGNE AND THE CAROLINGIANS 1. Describe the type of man Charles the Great (CHARLEMAGNE) was. A. The Carolingian Empire 1. How did Charlemagne make sure his counts were carrying out his orders? B. Charlemagne as Roman Emperor Charlemagne 1. What did Charlemagne s coronation as Roman emperor symbolize? C. An Intellectual Renewal 1. Whose cultural works did Charlemagne attempt to revive and renew interest in? 2. How were classical Greek and Roman works, and the Bible copied and preserved?

3 Due Date: I. THE INVADERS Chapter 9 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section Two Feudalism (pages ) 1. What two factors caused the Carolingian Empire to collapse after the death of Charlemagne? Name: 2. The Vikings were deliberately given the region of Normandy to settle by a Frankish king. Explain the purpose of this policy. II. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FEUDALISM 1. Who did people turn to for protection against Vikings and other invaders? Viking Longship A. The Knights and Vassals 1. How did the stirrup and a larger breed of horse change European horsemen? 2. How would European knights pay for the expenses of horses, armor, and weapons? Stirrup B. The Feudal Contract 1. Describe the agreement between lords and vassals known as the feudal contract: A lord would grant a vassal a portion of land to rule over, known as a. Vassal s duties to their lord: Perform usually for about 40 days a year. When summoned, a vassal would appear to give to their lords. Vassals were responsible for making to the lord, regularly. Whenever the lord s eldest son is knighted. The marriage of the lord s eldest daughter. Whenever the lord had been captured and a ransom required payment. The lord s duties to the vassal : Granting a vassal. Protect their vassals either by defending them, or by taking their side in a court of law.

4 III. THE NOBILITY OF THE MIDDLE AGES 1. Identify all of the different types of people who were considered nobles, or nobility : 2. Explain what would occur at a tournament in 12th century: 3. Explain what a knight would have to do in order to maintain their code of chivalry: IV. ARISTOCRATIC WOMEN 1. Explain what roles aristocratic women would perform that made them somewhat privileged in an otherwise patriarchal society. e Feudalism KING Eleanor of Aquitaine Lord Lord Lord Lord Vassal Vassal Vassal Vassal Vassal Vassal Vassal Vassal Peasants Peasants Peasants Peasants Peasants Peasants Peasants Peasants

5 Due Date: Name: Chapter 9 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section Three The Growth of European Kingdoms (pages ) I. ENGLAND IN THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES 1. Which Germanic peoples had ruled over England since King Alfred the Great had united the kingdoms in the late 9th century? A. The Norman Conquest 1. Who was the Norman (from the French kingdom of Normandy) who invaded and conquered England? 2. A census is a population count performed by the government for the sake of accurate record keeping and collecting TAXES. What was the census conducted by King William of England known as? B. Henry II 1. Identify the system of law established during Henry II s reign as king and what kind of legal system did it replace? C. The Magna Carta and the First Parliament 1. The Magna Carta who signed it? Where? When? 2. What idea would the Magna Carta later strengthen? 3. Who were permitted to be members of the English Parliament? 3. What two powers did the English Parliament have? II. THE FRENCH KINGDOM 1. Who was chosen to be the king of the western Frankish lands (France) after the death of the last Carolingian king? 2. How did French king, Phillip II Augustus, strengthen the French monarchy and increase its power? 3. By 1300, what could one say about the French Kingdom? 4. Who belonged to the 3 estates in the French Parliament? Hugh Capet

6 III. THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 1. What would the eastern Frankish kingdom become known as? 2. What did the pope receive in exchange for crowning the Saxon king Otto I emperor of all Romans. A. Struggles in Italy 1. What region did the German kings attempt to conquer and establish an empire over? 2. Why was Frederick I unable to conquer northern Italy? 3. Explain what happened when Frederick II tried to do the same thing unite Italy and Germany into ONE empire. B. Effect on the Empire 1. While the German kings were attempting to conquer Italy, what were German lords doing? 2. How did development of Germany and Italy s monarchies differed from those of England and France. IV. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE 1. What culture and religion did the western Slavs (Poles, Czechs, and Hungarians) adopt? 2. What culture and religion did the southern and eastern Slavs (Croats, Serbs, and Bulgarians) adopt? V. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA 1. Which group moved into present-day Ukraine and Russia and eventually ruled over the eastern Slavs there? A. Kievan Rus 1. What religion did the rulers of Kievan Rus (Russia) adopt? B. Mongol Rule Alexander Nevsky 1. After the Mongols conquered Russia, who was rewarded the title of grand-prince for defeating an invading army?

7 Due Date: V. THE CRUSADES Chapter 9 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section Four the Crusades (pages ) Name: 1. Why did the Crusades begin? 2. According to the promises of Pope Urban II, what would happen if a European knight were to kill an infidel? 3. What motivated European knights to participate in the Crusades? A. The Early Crusades 1. What were some of the successes Europeans had in the first Crusade? 2. Who took back the City of Jerusalem in 1187? A. The Later Crusades 1. What happened to Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade? 2. What effect did the Crusades have on Europe?

8 Due Date: Name: Chapter 10 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section One Peasants, Trade, and Cities (pages ) I. THE NEW AGRICULTURE 1. How much did Europe s population grow from 1000 to 1300 A.D.? 2. How did conditions in Europe change to help encourage population growth? 3. What environmental changes encouraged population growth? 4. What technological changes encouraged population growth? 5. How was the three-field system different from the two-field system? II. THE MANORIAL SYSTEM 1. What was a serf required to do for their lords? The Manor 2. What rights/privilages did a serf have? III. DAILY LIFE OF THE PEASANTRY A. Cycle of Labor 1. Peasants would perform various farming tasks at the same time every year. When would the work be fairly relaxed B. Food and Drink 1. What food was the basic staple of the European peasantry? 2. What drink was the basic staple of the European peasantry?

9 B. Women in Religious Orders 1. What kinds of aristocratic women would often end up as nuns? 2. What did Hildegard of Bingen accomplish as a nun? C. The Franciscans and the Dominicans 1. Who founded the popular Franciscan order of monks? Hildegard of Bingen 2. How did Franciscan monks live and practice their faith? 3. Who founded the Dominican order of monks? 4. The mission of the Dominican order was to defend the church against people who disagreed with the church s message. What was it called when you taught something that disagreed with the church? D. The Inquisition 1. If the Church accused you of heresy you would go to a court known as the Inquisition. What would happen if you didn t confess to this? III. POPULAR RELIGION IN THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES 1. The sacraments included which Christian rites/rituals? The Inquisition 2. Explain what special place saints have in Roman Catholicism? 3. Relics were items that were considered to be especially holy bones or important objects from a saint. What did many people believe these relics could do??

10 III. VERNACULAR LITERATURE Chapter 10 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section Three 1. Which language was used in Churches and schools all over Europe (regardless of the language people were speaking)? 2. What kind of language is vernacular language? 3. What was the most popular form of vernacular literature in the 12th century? 4. What were the chanson de geste? IV. ARCHITECTURE 1. Match the following kinds of churches based on their descriptions in the reading: Basillica A Romanesque Church B C Gothic Cathedral 2. What did the flying buttress allow church designers to begin using on the interior walls of their church?

11 Due Date: I. THE BLACK DEATH A. The Plague Spreads Chapter 10 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section Four The Late Middle Ages (Pages What caused bubonic plague to spread? Name: 2. Out of the entire European population of 78 million, how many died from the plague between 1347 and 1351? B. Social and Economic Consequences 1. Why were Jews persecuted during the plagues? 2. Because so many people died during the plagues, what happened to the price of labor (wages for work)? 3. Because so many people died during the plagues, what happened to the price of food? 4. How did the relationship between serfs and landlords change as a result of the plagues? II. THE DECLINE OF CHURCH POWER A. The Popes of Avignon 1. What did King Philip IV of France do when Pope Boniface VII refused to allow clergy in France to be taxed? B. The Great Schism and Its Aftermath 1. During the Great Schism, there were two popes but there can be only one! One pope in Avignon was French, and was supported by France and their allies. The other pope in Rome was Italian, and was supported by England and their allies. How was this problem solved? 2. Why was John Hus accused of heresy and burned at the stake in 14175?

12 III. THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR A. The War Begins 1. What began the Hundred Years War between England and France? 2. Why was the longbow (weapon of the English foot soldier) superior to crossbow? B. Crecy and Agincourt 1. What happened to the French knights (cavalry) at the battle of Crecy? 2. What happened to the French knights (cavalry) at the battle of Agincourt? C. Joan of Arc 1. Joan of Arc helped rally the French armies to victory and turn the tide in the war. What became of her? 2. What eventually helped the French successfully defeat the English? IV. POLITICAL RECOVERY 1. Which 3 monarchies began to reestablish strong governments in western Europe at the end the 15th century? A. Western Europe 1. What did King Louis XI (The Spider) use to create a strong French monarchy? 2. How did Henry VII of England end the fighting of nobles in England and gain support for his monarchy? 3. Which two rulers united their kingdoms through marriage and reconquered Spain from Muslims? C. Central and Eastern Europe 1. Did strong centralized kingdoms form in the Holy Roman Empire, Austria, and other parts of Eastern Europe?

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