Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe

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1 Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe Section 1: The Early Middle Age I. Geography of Western Europe A. Location 1. Second smallest land area of the seven continent 2. Lies on the western end of Eurasia (Portugal to China) B. Resources 1. Frontier land: sparsely populated and underdeveloped 2. Soil suited to raising crops 3. Mineral rich 4. Nearby seas provided fish and transportation routes II. The Germanic Kingdoms Gain Power A. They were a warrior culture with warrior nobles and a sharp allegiance to their king B. The Franks, led by Clovis, conquered the former Roman province Gaul in 486 C. Clovis ruled according to Frankish custom but still preserved much of the Roman influence in Gaul D. Clovis converted to Christianity 1. He earned the support of the people he conquered, namely those of Gaul 2. He gained a powerful ally in the Christian Church of Rome E. Encroaching Muslim influence would later divide the area even more 1. Battle of Tours: Christian warriors defeat Muslim armies who had entered France

2 2. Muslims advance no farther into Western Europe III. The Influence of Charlemagne A. The German leader Charlemagne united an empire from France to part of Italy B. Loved a battle and wars C. Pope Leo III asked Charlemagne to crush rebellious nobles in Rome and in return Charlemagne is crowned emperor of the Romans 1. German leader leading Roman territories revived the ideal of a united Christian community 2. Laid the foundation for power struggles between future Roman Catholic popes and German emperors 3. Animosity in Constantinople grows because the eastern Roman empire believed that they were the ones in charge. The split between east and west is ON D. Charlemagne wanted to create a united Christian Europe 1. Helped spread Christianity to conquered peoples like the Saxons (Beowulf!!) and Slavs 2. Appointed powerful nobles to rule local regions 3. Used missi dominici (officials) to check living conditions, listen to complaints, and see that justice was being done to the people E. Revived Latin learning in hopes of creating a second Rome F. Founded a school at Aachen under the direction of Alcuin of York 1. Created a curriculum based on Latin learning 2. Grammar, arithmetic, logic, and music 3. Becomes the educational model for medieval Europe

3 IV. The Legacy of Charlemagne A. Empire falls apart after his death B. His grandsons draw up the Treaty of Verdun, which splits the empire into three regions C. Charlemagne s Influence 1. Extended Christian civilization into northern Europe 2. Blended German, Romans, and Christian traditions 3. Set up strong, efficient governments which serves as a model for later medieval rulers

4 Section 2: Feudalism and the Manor Economy I. Feudalism s Influence On Medieval Society A. Feudalism: powerful lords divided their land holdings among lesser lords in exchanged for these lesser lords or vassals pledging service, loyalty and protection to the powerful local lord. B. Everyone had a place 1. Monarchs 2. Lords 3. Lesser lords 4. Knights 5. Peasants C. Noblewomen also considered the ladies of the manor 1. Eleanor of Aquitaine known as the Grandmother of Europe because her son Richard The Lion-Hearted would later become king of England 2. Supervised vasels, managed households 3. Expected to bear children and be dutiful to her husband D. Chivalry: the code of conduct for knights 1. Knights expected to be brave, loyal, and true to their war 2. In theory, they treasured women as someone to be protected and cherished II. Life for Peasants in the Manor A. The manor the heart of the medieval economy B. Peasants lived in villages on the estate and were the majority population C. Peasants rights

5 1. Had to work several days/week farming the lord s land 2. Repaired roads, bridges, and fences 3. Paid the lord a fee when they married, used the mill to grind grain, or inherited their father s acres 4. Had right to farm several acres for themselves 5. Entitle to their lord s protection from Viking raids or feudal warfare D. Living Conditions 1. No schooling 2. Never ventured more than a few miles from the manor 3. Men, women, and children worked long hours 4. Ate simple diets of black bread and veggies 5. Rarely ate meat 6. Worked according to season

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