1) The Role and the Structure of the Church

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1 The Church

2 Objectives: To describe the Church s structure, influence and power. To explain the relationship between the Church and the German Empire. To list events in the power struggle between the popes and the German emperors. Otto I, Henry IV To summarize the conflict between the Church and Frederick I To explain why the feudal states of Germany did not unify during the middle ages.

3 1) The Role and the Structure of the Church With the weak central governments of Europe, the Church became the most important force in unifying European society. The pope was in charge of spiritual matter and the emperor rules the political life. However the difference was not very clear. The popes often tried to influence the actions of rulers, who clashed with them in struggles for power.

4 The Church established its own organization. It consisted of different ranks of clergy, or church officials. ( pope - bishops - priests )

5 Church Power This jeweled tiara, which a pope would were in a procession, reflects the wealth, power, and authority of his office.

6 Bishops, who were often wealthy and came from noble families, ruled over groups of parishes called "diocese." Parish priests, on the other hand, came from humbler backgrounds and often had little education. The village priest tended to the sick and indigent and, if he was able, taught Latin and the Bible to the youth of the village.

7

8 Monks and Nuns: Monasteries in the Middle Ages were based on the rules set down by St. Benedict in the 6th century. The monks became known as Benedictines and took vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience to their leaders. They were required to perform manual labor and were forbidden to own property, leave the monastery, or become entangled in the concerns of society. Monks went to the monastery church 8 times a day in a routine of worship that involved singing, chanting, and reciting prayers from the divine offices and from the service for Mass.

9 Between prayers, the monks read or copied religious texts and music. Monks were often well educated and devoted their lives to writing and learning. Daily tasks were often carried out in silence. Monks and nuns, who lived in convents, provided for the less-fortunate members of the community. Monasteries and nunneries were safe havens for pilgrims and other travelers.

10 The Middle Ages was an Age of Faith. The law of the Church, called cannon Law -set up standers that applied to all Christians.

11 Relationship between Church and German Empire Otto I of Germany allies with the Pope after Charlemagne s death. His reason was to limit the power of the nobility. Received support from the bishops and abbots in Germany. Invaded Italy on the Pope s behalf in 962. Otto was crowned emperor. Italians nobles did not like being ruled by German emperors. Popes did not like it either. Church resented the power that Otto & other kings had over lay investiture (selection of church officials).

12 Conflict between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV 1075 Pope Gregory VII banned lay investiture. Henry IV was angered by the move and fired off a harsh letter to Gregory and order him to step down as a pope. As a result, Gregory VII excommunicated Henry. They met at Canossa, Italy where Henry begged the pope to forgive him. The Pope forgave him.

13

14

15 Concordat of Worms The church and King s kept fighting over lay investiture until The Pope & the German rulers met at Worms. The question of lay investiture remained undecided.

16 Concordat of Worms Result was that the Church alone could grant a bishop his ring and staff. The emperor had the veto power of appointment. German princes had regained much of the power they had lost when Otto I ruled.

17 Frederick I Chosen by German princes in st ruler to call his lands the Holy Roman Empire. Attacked the cities of Italy. Angered the merchants of Italy and the Pope. These two forces formed an alliance called The Lombard League at the Battle of Legnano Fredericks forces were defeated made peace with the Pope. Lost authority with the German princes. After his death in 1190 Germany broke up into many feudal states. German rulers kept invading Italy. Germany was never able to unify because of this. By electing the King, German rulers authority was weakened.

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