Medieval Europe & Crusades. Snapshots of two representative periods: Charlemagne And The Crusades

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1 Medieval Europe & Crusades Snapshots of two representative periods: Charlemagne And The Crusades

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4 The Big Picture 4th-5th centuries Roman Empire Allies with Barbarians To watch over regions In name of Rome 476 Western Roman Empire Falls 8th-9th centuries Invasion, instability, decentralization Vikings Magyars 5th-8th centuries Dark Ages Barbarian Kingdoms Mostly fail 9th century Charlemagne One Europe Holy Roman Empire 11th century Crusades 10th century fragmentation 12th-13th century High Middle Ages

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11 Frankish Kingdoms Relate the historical circumstances of the rise and fall of the Carolingian Empire. Explain important contributions of Charlemagne s reign.

12 Rise of Frankish Kingdoms Franks confederation of peoples Rome made treaties with them

13 Franks expanded gradually defeating other kingdoms intermarrying converted to Catholicism Frankish leaders allied with leading churchmen, abbots and bishops.

14 The Franks maintained Roman traditions of rule official language = Latin wills and laws were issued courts were held Clovis ( ), the greatest of the Merovingians, divided his kingdom among his sons Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy. Charlemagne s family fills vacuum left by political strife among Merovingians

15 Rise of Charlemagne Charlemagne was the greatest member of the Carolingian family, arose in the early seventh century in Austrasia (northeastern Frankish kingdom). long controlled the office of Mayor of the Palace, sort of a prime minister to the Merovingian kings.

16 Charlemagne 10min Try to get FIVE facts...

17 Dynasties: Holy Roman Empire

18 Rise of Charlemagne built up close relations to leading members of the clergy, both bishops and abbots. waged military campaigns along frontiers that maintained the integrity of the kingdom. Charles Martel, Battle of Poitiers in 733

19 Carolingians take Throne 751 Pippin III ( ) wrote to Pope Zachary to ask if it was right that the person in Francia who had all the power lacked the title of king. Zachary needed help against the Lombards and told Pippin that he should be king. papal approval = legitimacy.

20 Charlemagne ( ) a turning point in European history. long reign p keen judge of people. worked out and implemented a coherent plan.

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22 Military Campaigns helped to maintain the realm. waged 53 campaigns in 46 years. rarely led armies himself. great talent was organization, not generalship. restored the borders of the Merovingian kingdom

23 Institutional developments both reform and innovation. made the royal court and courtiers key players in both government and politics. created the impression of wide consultation and consensus. Annual assemblies

24 Institutional developments Capitularies = legislation in capitula ( chapters )were issued at almost every assembly. Key members of the Frankish people were made royal vassals and, so, entered into personal relationships with the king. Missi dominici

25 Ecclesiastical developments close alliance with the papacy extension of the Church hierarchy Church organization as a complement to, and even an advance on, political organization. attempts to attain uniformity in canon law, liturgy and worship, and monastic practices went far toward achieving a common culture in Western Europe.

26 Charlemagne s Coronation one of the signal events in Western civilization. problems in papal Rome. emerging idea of a universal, imperial, hegemonic tradition in Francia. The events of Christmas Day 800 led to the creation of a New Israel in Francia. The idea of Christendom was born in Charlemagne s reign.

27 Carolingian Renaissance century of unified Carolingian rule w stamping a common historical and cultural imprint on Western Europe development of schools & basic education

28 Carolingian Renaissance basis for a common European culture, a built Catholic Christianity into every aspect of life in Europe. established the framework for European intellectual life until the emergence of the universities in the twelfth century.

29 Fall of Carolingians Internal factors: Family rivalries among the sons and grandsons of Charlemagne tore the realm apart. Treaty of Verdun in 843. complexity of the lands and peoples over which the Carolingians ruled made uniformity difficult.

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31 Fall of Carolingians External factors: Viking, Muslim, and Magyar attacks that began in the middle years of the ninth century. militarization and localization of society as responses to the unpredictable attacks forced people to fall back on locally available resources. Bonds between the center and the localities were slowly dissolved.

32 Medieval Culture Manorialism Feudalism Social Classes Knighthood Revival of Trade

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34 Europe After Romans Explain Manorialism and why it arose. Explain Feudalism and its connection to Manorialism.

35 Developments during this period in politics and society

36 Manorialism Economic system Insular ; independent Social hierarchy Land = wealth generator Wealth trickledown commons

37 Feudalism Political system Social hierarchy Obligations up and down Rights and responsibilities Three estates Middle Ages as transformation of Roman world

38 Feudalism 1min56

39 Feudalism

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41 Social Classes Middle Ages 1min30

42 Social Classes

43 New Agriculture Population growth Climate change Technology Mills Iron tools Carruca Iron plow Horse collar Horseshoe 2-field to 3-field system

44 Cities Grow Old Roman cities Rise of the bourgeoisie burghers ~5K pop. London, 1200s, 40K Florence, Venice, Milan ~80K Townspeople get liberties from kings and lords

45 Knighthood Expensive Land needed for wealth to support Duties to the Overlord hommage

46 Chivalry Chivalry Tournaments Le Roman Courtois

47 Chivalry 3min45 NOTES: Le Cid? William the Conqueror? Chivalry changed warrior behavior by... Chaucer's view...

48 Chivalry

49 Trade Comes Back Leads to growth of towns Italy first Venice Flanders Champagne Fairs Money economy revived Banking Commercial Revolution

50 Guilds Crafts organized by guilds Guild Halls Levels Master Journeyman Apprentice

51 Guilds Monopoly Prices wages C

52 New Agriculture Population growth Climate change Technology Mills Iron tools Carruca Iron plow Horse collar Horseshoe 2-field to 3-field system

53 Medieval help desk...

54 Church & Crusades Explain the role of the Church in Medieval European society both for the clergy in secula and those in regula. Explain fully the causes and effects of the Crusades.

55 Medieval Church ~500 to ~750 = development of the Catholic Church. In Rome, popes gradually turned away from Mediterranean - relationships w/ political leaders of Western Europe. Popes institutional leadership in central Italy the papal state. great patrons of art and learning in and around Rome.

56 Bishops important local leaders. As new kingdoms grew, more bishoprics were created. Bishops coming together in councils could legislate for their whole realms long before kings could do so. Bishops became key advisers to kings.

57 Monasteries spread all across Europe. Monks played a key role in converting the people of the countryside. Many missionaries were Irish or Anglo-Saxon monks who traveled far to preach and teach. Monasteries were often important centers of learning.

58 Medieval Church 3min Take note of any FOUR facts.

59 Medieval Church

60 New Orders Cistercians Outside monastery Hildegard of Bingen chant Franciscans Dominicans Heresy is The Inquisition Purpose method

61 The Crusades

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63 The Crusades 2min22

64 Crusades

65 The First Crusades in a nutshell Muslims conquer Palestine 7th century Christians on pilgrimage No problem 11th century Seljuk Turks take Palestine - not nice! 1096 First Crusade 1095 Pope Urban II Preaches Crusade To liberate Holy Land Persecution of Jews For centuries to come 1187 Saladin unites Muslims ejects Christians 1097 Constantinople (invitation regretted!) 1099 Jerusalem Many more crusades Follow through the 15th cen. not successful

66 Europe transformed Break down feudalism Serfs can now buy freedom Decrease in population of knights Increase authority of kings Increase demand for luxury goods from the east Commerce increases permanently Increase in knowledge from the east

67 Muslim Perspective At first thought was Byzantines Termed all Franks thought just another imperialist action as seen in Spain Barbarians from the north Not a lot of religious context for Muslims here, but for some idea was Jerusalem should be controlled by Muslims Not for all Crusaders either!

68 Crusades Jewish Perspective 3min56

69 Crusades... Rabbi Wein

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