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1 A Pilgrim People The Story of Our Church Presented by:

2 Early Church Growth & Threats Patristic Period & Great Councils Rise of Christendom High Medieval Church Renaissance to Reformation Worldwide Growth Revolution to Renewal ( AD) ( AD) ( AD) ( AD) ( AD) (< AD) ( AD)

3 Presentation Outline Fall of Roman Empire Growth of Monasticism Rise of Holy Roman Empire Great East-West Schism

4 Roman Empire Fifth Century Christianity became mainstream Roman Empire viewed as God s Kingdom on Earth When Western Roman Empire Collapsed: God did not seem to protect Christians Does correct conception of Kingdom of God involve political powers?

5 Barbarian Invasions Video: Barbarian Invasions

6

7 Fall of Roman Empire Fifth - Sixth Centuries Pax Romana (Peace of Rome) no longer maintained in West by Roman legions Anarchy, brutality, lawlessness Trade became more local Barter economy Towns and cities declined

8 Dark Ages Fifth - Sixth Centuries Social & political order declined Social & political structures became more localized Church only large-scale institution left that could provide social order & stability Formerly provided by Roman Empire Church s leadership role moral, not political

9 Pope Leo the Great Fifth - Sixth Centuries Pope was only remaining figure of authority in Rome Pope not supported by an emperor with military But Pope Leo able to defend Rome from barbarians Video: Pope Leo and Attila the Hun

10

11 East and West Fifth - Sixth Centuries After collapse of Roman Empire in the West, Constantinople was center of empire Western Empire in Dark Ages, but Byzantine Empire in East cultured and civilized At the time, it appeared Christianity in West was dying Video: Byzantine Empire

12

13 East and West Fifth - Sixth Centuries Bishop of Rome (Pope) appeared much weaker than Bishop of Constantinople (Patriarch) BUT from a position of weakness Pope Leo was able to turn back Attila the Hun AND from a very early date, the Bishop of Rome (Pope) claimed absolute primacy

14 East and West Different views of authority in the Church between east and west Fifth - Sixth Centuries West: Pope has spiritual authority over all See (seat) of St. Peter East: Authority shared equally by bishops of Pentarchy Rome, Antioch, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Constantinople

15 East and West Fifth Century Onward Christianity s brightest future appeared to be in the East Future didn t shape up that way Despite collapse of Roman order in West, Church did not despair Church accepted that Germanic barbarians were there to stay New mission: Convert them Took centuries, but succeeded Due to efforts of ordinary people Especially monks

16 Monasticism Fifth Century Onward Monks sought deeper holiness apart from chaotic and sinful world Monks had huge impact on the world by withdrawing from it Monasteries became centers of missionary activity among rural peasants Video: Monasticism

17

18 Monasticism Fifth Century Onward It appeared Christianity might fall with the fall of Roman Empire Christianity may have died without monasticism Monks spread Christianity quietly and non-violently Emperors and Kings sometimes spread Christianity by force

19 Discussion Question History shows two ways of trying to spread God s Kingdom: Changing other peoples lives by force Changing other peoples lives by changing their own lives first Which method is more successful?

20 Monasticism Fifth Century Onward Anthony of Egypt was a wonder and a sign Sought penance in desert Mother Teresa was a wonder and a sign Sought poverty with poor Monastic spirit spurns power and comfort

21 Monasticism Fifth Century Onward Started with individuals Developed into communities Communities multiplied and spread the Gospel What role does the monastic spirit have to play in the Church today?

22 Fruits of Monasticism Libraries and Schools Preservation of Western Culture Art, Literature, Philosophy Church Latin, the Bible Spirituality, Prayer, Music Unique Opportunity for Women St. Marcella (St. Jerome) Bishops, Popes, Doctors of the Church

23 Conversion of Europe Fifth Century Onward In addition to monasticism at the grassroots level, Christian rulers began to govern society based on how they believed God intended Also contributed to conversion of Europe

24 Conversion of Europe Conversion of the Franks Modern France and Germany King Clovis First leader of the Franks to become Christian In 496, Clovis was Baptized 3,000 others joined him

25 Conversion of Europe Pope Stephen II went to Germany to seek Frankish King Pepin s help Defeated Lombards in Italy Gave pope control of Papal States in central Italy Over next several centuries the Franks would ensure stability of Christianity in Europe by: Protecting the Papacy Establishing the Holy Roman Empire in Central Europe

26 Rise of Christendom Christendom formalized when Charlemagne crowned by God as Emperor by Pope Leo III Became Ruler of Holy Roman Empire Second Roman Empire in West Also called Carolingian Empire Charlemagne controlled civilized Europe Except Spain (Muslim)

27 Charlemagne's Empire Video: Charlemagne

28

29 Rise of Christendom Fifth - Ninth Centuries Alliance of Papacy and the Franks, aided by the monks, built a distinctively Christian political and social order in Central Europe Christendom Society ordered by Gospel Christianity involved in every aspect of life

30 Holy Roman Empire Continuous struggle for primacy Orthodox (Eastern) view was that Emperor occupied higher position than the Patriarch Charlemagne also considered he had higher authority than Pope However, in Catholic view Pope has highest authority Spiritual authority over political authority

31 Holy Roman Empire Big problem: Lay investiture Seventh Through Eleventh Centuries Practice of lay persons (secular rulers) appointing bishops, priests, abbots, abbesses State had authority over Church Emperors, Kings, and other secular rulers wanted bishops they could control Bishops also had secular power

32 Holy Roman Empire Video: Status in 1000 A.D.

33

34 Great East-West Schism Official separation of the Eastern (Orthodox) Church from the Western (Roman Catholic) Church Mutual excommunication Seeds of schism developed long before 1054 A.D. Differing practices West: Unleavened bread and celibate clergy East: Leavened bread and married clergy

35 Major Causes of Schism 326 A.D. Constantine moved capital to East New center of political power 451 A.D. Council of Chalcedon Gave greater ecclesiastical prominence to Bishop of Constantinople (the New Rome ) Ranked second to Bishop of Rome Pope Leo the Great protested reduction of honor given to Bishops of Antioch and Alexandria 589 A.D. Western Council of Toledo

36 Filioque At Council of Toledo, Western bishops added word filioque ( and the Son ) to Nicene Creed I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son Rejected by Eastern bishops Proceed = begot = from Father Descended through the Son

37 Major Causes of Schism 326 A.D. Constantine moved capital to East New center of political power 451 A.D. Council of Chalcedon Gave greater ecclesiastical prominence to Bishop of Constantinople (the New Rome ) 589 A.D. Western Council of Toledo Filioque controversy 630 s A.D. Fall of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria to the Muslims left Constantinople undisputed head of Eastern Church

38 Five Patriarchates Rome Constantinople Antioch Jerusalem Alexandria

39 Islamic Expansion Video: Islamic Expansion

40

41 Major Causes of Schism 700 s A.D. Iconoclast controversy Since Christ was human and human nature can be depicted, Christ can be painted West s view of East s destruction of icons was denial of Jesus human nature Closet Monophysites West disagreed with Emperor imposing doctrinal decisions on bishops

42 Major Causes of Schism 753 A.D. Creation of Papal States East: Rejected Papal States 800 A.D. Coronation of Charlemagne East: One God = One Emperor 1054 A.D. Mutual Excommunication Year of the Great East-West Schism

43 Byzantine Empire

44 Eastern Churches Today, there exist 3 main forms of Christianity in the Middle East 80% not in union with the Pope: 1. Eastern Orthodox Church After Great East-West Schism 2. Oriental (Monophysite) Churches Split off at Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.)

45 Eastern Churches 20% are in union with Pope: 3. Various Eastern Rite Uniate Churches Developed from both Byzantine and Monophysite traditions by interaction with European Christianity during Crusades Each retain their own liturgical customs and languages

46 Catholic Churches

47 Summary In this presentation, we covered a period of huge difficulties and massive changes for the Church Fall of Roman Empire and Dark Ages Eastern Byzantine Empire Papal Primacy Monasticism Charlemagne and Rise of Christendom Expansion of Islam Great Schism between East & West Churches

48 Early Church Growth & Threats Patristic Period & Great Councils Rise of Christendom High Medieval Church Renaissance to Reformation Worldwide Growth Revolution to Renewal ( AD) ( AD) ( AD) ( AD) ( AD) (< AD) ( AD)

49 Closing Prayer

50 A Pilgrim People The Story of Our Church Presented by:

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