Church Reform and the Crusades

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1 Church Reform and the Crusades Objectives: 1. Explain the spiritual revival and Church reforms that began in the 11 th century. 2. Describe the Gothic cathedrals of the 12 th century. 3. Summarize the causes of the Crusades and analyze the effects of the Crusades.

2 The Age of Faith Problems in the Church In the 11 th century, Church reformers were most distressed about three main issues: Many village priests married and had families Simony Practice of bishops selling positions in the Church Using the practice of lay investiture, kings appointed church bishops Church reformers believed the church alone could appoint bishops Reform and Church Organization Popes enforced laws against simony and the marriage of priests Church was restructured to resemble a kingdom, with the pope at its head Church collected taxes

3 The Age of Faith New Religious Orders Friars Church disciples that traveled the land spreading the word of God Francis of Assisi Founded the Franciscan order of friars Treated all living things as spiritual equals Cathedrals Cities of God Cathedrals Large churches built in city areas Viewed as the representation of the City of God A New Style of Church Architecture Gothic (1100 s) Architectural style characterized by tall ornate spires and large stained glass windows Design was meant to inspire worshipers with the magnificence of God

4 The Crusades Age of Faith Inspires Wars of Conquest In 1093, Pope Urban II issued a call for a holy war to recover the control of the Holy Land of Jerusalem Over the next 300 years, a number of Crusades with this goal were launched Goals of the Crusades The Crusades had economic, social, and political goals as well as religious motives Muslims controlled Palestine and threatened Constantinople Pope wanted to reclaim Palestine and reunite Christendom, which had split into Eastern and Western branches in 1054 Way to get rid of quarrelsome knights. Younger sons, who didn t get inheritance, looking for land and position in society. Merchants profited by making cash loans to finance the journey Hoped to win control of key trade routes to Asia from Muslim traders

5 The Crusades The First and Second Crusades 1 st - Pope Urban s call for the Crusade received strong support Those who died on Crusade were assured of a place in heaven Red Cross 1 st - Crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099 Land was carved up into four federal Crusader states Each state was ruled by a European noble 2 nd - In 1187, Jerusalem was reclaimed by Muslim leader Saladin The Third Crusade Crusade to recapture Jerusalem from the Muslims Led by the King of England, Richard the Lion-Hearted Truce (1192) Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, but Christian pilgrims could freely visit holy places

6 The Crusading Spirit Dwindles The Children's Crusade (1212) Thousands of children under the age of 18 set out to conquer Jerusalem Most failed to even reach the Holy Land A Spanish Crusade In Spain, Muslims (called Moors) controlled most of the country until the 1100 s The Reconquista Long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain Succeeded in 1492 The Inquisition A court held by the church to suppress heresy Heretics People whose beliefs differed from those of the Church Persons suspected of heresy might be questioned for weeks or even tortured Suspects that confessed were burned at the stake

7 The Effects of the Crusades Expansion of Trade Trade between Europe and Southwest Asia expanded Discovery of new goods Decline of the Papacy The failure of later Crusades weakened to power of the pope The Crusades weakened the feudal nobility and increased the power of kings Legacy of the Crusades The intolerance and prejudice displayed by Christians in the Holy Land left behind a legacy of bitterness and hatred This legacy continues to the present

8 The Black Death

9 The plague arrives Plague arrives in Europe (Messina) from the Middle East (Kaffa)in October of 1347 (Italian Merchants) European population decline 25 to 50 percent from ; thus, 19 to 38 million die (of 75 million)

10 Where did the Black Death come from?

11 What were the symptoms of the plague?

12 What caused the plague? The question that you are probably thinking is this; Q: Who or what caused the Black Death? A: This is your answer! The Oriental Rat Flea!

13 How was the plague transmitted? We now know that the most common form of the Black Death was the BUBONIC PLAGUE! This disease was spread by fleas which lived on the black rat.

14

15 Cures? Medieval people did not know about germs causing disease. They did not understand that plague was spread by rats and fleas. They thought that people s bodies were poisoned. If the swellings burst and the poison came out people sometimes survived. It seemed sensible to draw out the poison.

16 Medieval cure number 1 The swellings should be softened with figs and cooked onions. The onions should be mixed with yeast and butter. Then open the swellings with a knife.

17 Medieval cure number 2 Take a live frog and put its belly on the plague sore. The frog will swell up and burst. Keep doing this with further frogs until they stop bursting. Some people say that a dried toad will do the job better.

18 Reactions to the Plague Life and Death: -People had no rational explanation for the plague and no way to combat it. Fear and bigotry followed the plague where ever it went setting father against son, wife against husband. - Their were many different reactions to the plague 1. Flagellants 2. Anti-Semitism 3. Eat drink and be merry for tomorrow we ll

19 Flagellants - Believed the Plague was sent by the devil 1. Would travel from town to town flogging themselves to gain God s forgiveness.

20

21 Anti Semitism Anti Semitism Grew Throughout The Time of The Plague - Jews were accused of poisoning the water supply and bringing the plague - Extermination would get rid of the plague 1. Strasbourg, Germany - Worst example 60 Jews were burned alive

22 Social and Cultural Contributions Labor shortages created better wages Fewer people allowed for social mobility (People able to climb the social ranks) An entire generation faced with death Helped break apart the feudal system

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