The Holy Roman Empire ( ) By: Aubrey Feyrer Amanda Peng Ian Scribner

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1 The Holy Roman Empire ( ) By: Aubrey Feyrer Amanda Peng Ian Scribner

2 Growth of the Holy Roman Empire

3 Intellectual and Cultural History Included present-day Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, Czech & Slovak Republics, portions of eastern France, northern Italy, Slovenia, & western Poland Created by coronation of Frankish king Charlemagne on Christmas year 800 Restored eyes in western Roman Empire Leaderless since year 476 Developed in Early Middle Ages Developed complex legal & political structure Language spoken: Medieval Latin Holy Roman Emperor imperial flag depicting the black eagle.

4 Education in the HRE Charlemagne gathered a group of Anglo-Saxon & Irish clergy Kept literacy alive in Europe after fall of Rome Reformed palace school at Aachen Founded monastery schools Called Carolingian Renaissance: period in the Middle Ages characterized by the revival of scholarship Sponsored creation of new uniform script for copying text Developed textbooks

5 Otto I The Great Crowned The King of Germany in 936 Crowned Emperor of Romans by Pope John XII 951 Otto invaded Italy, where Berengar of Ivrea seized the throne Otto I The Great Otto crossed the Alps, took the title King of the Lombards, married Adelaide Allowed Berengar to continue ruling Italy as a vassal Imprisoned Berengar, crowned Emperor by John XII Replaced Pope John XII with Leo VII 972, struck a treaty with Byzantines, formally recognizing him as Emperor Treaty offers Byzantine Princess Theophano for son Otto II

6 Otto II ( ) Sole surviving Son of Otto the Great and Adelaide of Italy. Became Ruler of Germany at 18 years old Defeated a major revolt against his reign early in his rule Died at 28, leaving his 3 year old son King of Germany Drawing of Otto II, Last Son of Otto I the Great

7 Otto III ( ) Became King of Germany in 983 at 3 years old Became Emperor in 996, 13 years later Installed Pope Gregory V, first German Pope Actions generally strengthened imperial control over the church Was forced out by the Roman Aristocracy Died by a fever on his trek out of Rome Otto III, commonly believed to be the worst of the Otto Line

8 Frederick II ( ) Emperor for 30 years, longer than average Also known as the King of Jerusalem Crowned King of Sicily at age 3 Officially King of Sicily, Italy, and Germany as well Accused of being the Antichrist by Pope Gregory IX Excommunicated four separate times by the church An Avid Patron of Science and the Arts First to Outlaw Trials by Ordeal for being Illogical After his death, line sputtered out and ended Frederick II in all his glory

9 Günther (1349) Shortest Reign as Emperor recorded Defeated by Charles IV for the German Throne Accepted 20,000 Silver Marks in exchange for throne Never Truly was Emperor, only because Charles IV challenged him so early on Supposed carving of Günther

10 Charles V (Carlos I)

11 Social Structure of the Holy Roman Empire The Princes: The autocratic rulers who exploited peasants and centralized their territory. The Lesser Nobility: Made obsolete by military science and gunpowder. The Clergy: Bishops, archbishops, abbots, and priors who exploited the peasants. The Patricians: Wealthy families who sat in administrative offices. Also exploited peasants. The Burghers: Middle class citizens who were merchants or guild administrators. The Plebeians: Urban workers, journeymen, and vagabonds. They held no land. The Peasants: The lowest part of HRE society, they were basically property.

12 Trading The Holy Roman Empire s main route was the Black Sea. They traded food, jewels, wine, spices, clothing, and coal. Once the Silk Road was created, trading with China was much easier. The Black Sea as seen on a European map

13 Religion After the Protestant Reformation, the HRE was divided between Catholic and Protestant rulership. The Peace of Augsburg ended conflict between German Lutherans and Catholics. Princes had the right to choose Lutheranism or Catholicism within their domains. When Calvinism spread, the conflicts resumed, ending the temporary peace. Protestant and Catholic cavalry battle.

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