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1 Unit 3 pt. 3 The Worlds of Christendom:the Byzantine Empire Write down what is in red 1 Copyright 2013 by Bedford/St. Martin s

2 The Early Byzantine Empire Capital: Byzantium On the Bosporus In both Europe and Asia Commercial, strategic value of location Constantine names capital after himself (Constantinople), moves capital there 340 CE 1453 falls to Turks, renamed Istanbul 2

3 Byzantine Christendom: Building on the The Byzantine State Roman Past Wealth and splendor of the court Sitting astride the trade routes between the East and West, the empire was extremely wealthy. The empire had a decidedly Greek character but also influences from Persian court ceremonies, such as high officials in silk robes. Political power was centralized in the figure of the emperor who was celebrated in the court with a mechanical throne that rose above his visitors and mechanical lions that roared Under attack from the West and East,

4 4

5 The Later Roman Empire and Byzantium Byzantine Empire inherits Roman Empire after fall of Rome in 5 th c. CE Eastern territories remain major power until 13 th c. CE 5

6 The Later Roman Empire Roman infrastructure in place Roads, institutional hierarchies Challenges from strong Persian empire (Sassanid dynasty, CE) Invasions of Germanic peoples 6

7 Caesaropapism Power centralized in figure of Emperor Christian leader cannot claim divinity, rather divine authority Political rule but also involved in Religious rule as well Authority absolute 7

8 Justinian ( CE) The sleepless emperor Wife Theodora as advisor Background: circus performer Uses army to contain tax riots, ambitious construction program Hagia Sophia Law Code definitive for centuries 8

9 Mosaic depicting Justinian (left) presenting model of church of Hagia Sophia to the Virgin Mary. Constantine to the right presents her with model of Constantinople 9

10 Haiga Sophia 10

11 Plans and inset for Haiga Sophia 11

12 12

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14 14

15 Mausoleum of Galla Placidia (c. 425 AD) 15

16 San Vitale 16

17 The fall of the Roman Empire brought in the age of a new power, that of the Christian Church. Since the Christians had completely different concerns than the Roman republic, their art took on an entirely different direction. It became much less focused on realism, and more concerned with symbolic representations of Christian concepts. All art served the role of church decoration. This helped to set an atmosphere of devotion, while illustrating Christian stories to a largely illiterate public. The first period of Medieval art is called the Byzantine (after the original name of Constantinople: Byzantium). 17

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21 Byzantine Conquests General Belisarius recaptures much of western Roman Empire under Justinian Unable to consolidate control of territories Withdrew to defend empire from Sassanids, Slavs 21

22 The Byzantine empire and its neighbors C.E. 22

23 Islamic Conquests and Byzantine Revival 7 th century Arab Muslim expansion Besieged Byzantium , Defense made possible through use of greek fire 23

24 Imperial Organization Themes (provinces) under control of generals Military administration Control from central imperial government Soldiers from peasant class, rewarded with land grants 24

25 Tensions with Western Europe Church Byzantine: Greek; Roman: Latin Conflicts over hierarchical control Fealty of Germanic peoples Roman pope crowns Charlemagne in 800, a challenge to Byzantine authority 25

26 Byzantine Economy and Society Constantinople largest city in Europe, 5 th - 13 th Dependent on small landholders, free peasants Earlier large landholdings destroyed by invasions in 6 th -7 th centuries 26

27 Decline of the Free Peasantry Large landholdings on the increase Reduces tax revenues, recruits to military Last three centuries indicate steady decline of economy 27

28 Manufacturing and Trade Trade routes bring key technologies, e.g. silk industry Advantage of location causes crafts and industry to expand after 6 th century Tax revenues from silk route Banking services develop 28

29 Orthodox Christianity Legacy of Classical Greece Greek replaces Latin after 6 th c. CE; language of New Testament Byzantine education sponsors development of large literate class for state bureaucracy Training in classical canon 29

30 The Byzantine Church Church and state closely aligned Council of Nicea (325) bans Arian movement Human/divine nature of Jesus Constantine favors Arians, but supports Nicean condemnation Byzantine Emperors appoint Patriarchs Caesaropapism creates dissent in church 30

31 Nicean Creed First Council of Nicea (325) First Council of Constantinople (381) We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father [the onlybegotten; that is, of the essence of the Father, God of God], Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the onlybegotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds (æons), Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; 31

32 Iconoclasm Means Image breaker Emperor Leo III (r CE) Destruction of icons after 726 Causes disagreements with Church in the West protest, rioting Policy abandoned

33 Greek Philosophy and Byzantine Theology Attempt to reconcile Greek philosophy with Judeo-Christianity Constantine establishes school to apply philosophical methods to religious questions 33

34 Schism Arguments over hierarchy, jurisdiction Autonomy of Patriarchs, or Primacy of Rome? 1054 Patriarch of Constantinople and Pope of Rome excommunicate each other East: Orthodox Church West: Roman Catholic

35 Social Problems in the Byzantine Empire Generals of themes become allied with local aristocrats Intermarry, create class of elite Occasional rebellions vs. Imperial Rule 35

36 Challenges from the West Western European economic development Normans from Scandinavia press on Byzantine territories Crusades of 12 th -13 th centuries rampage through Byzantine territory Constantinople sacked,

37 Challenges from the East Muslim Saljuqs invade Anatolia Threatens grain supply Defeat Byzantine army in 1071, creates civil conflict Period of steady decline until Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople in 1453 Renamed Istanbul 37

38 The Byzantine empire and its neighbors about 1100 C.E. 38

39 Influence on Slavic Cultures Relations from 6 th c. CE Bulgaria influenced culturally, politically Saints Cyril and Methodius Create Cyrillic alphabet Slavic lands develop orientation to Byzantium 39

40 Kievan Rus Conversion of Prince Vladimir, 989 Byzantine culture influences development of Slavic cultures Distinctively Slavic Orthodox church develops Eventual heir to Byzantium The Rus borrowed extensively from Byzantium, including the use of icons, architectural style, a monastic tradition, and imperial control of the church. When Constantinople fell in 1453, the Rus declared that they were the third Rome as the first Rome had abandoned its faith and the second fell to the Muslims. 40

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