Topics Covered: (Israelites, monotheism, Judaism, Ten Commandments, Torah, Talmud, Diaspora)

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1 HWK#3-DUE MONDAY DIRECTIONS: 1. TAKE CORNELL NOTES ON THE FOLLOWING TOPICS: JUDAISM, HINDUISM, BUDDHISM, CONFUCIANISM, DAOISM, LEGALISM 2. MAKE SURE KEY TERMS ARE PUT INTO NOTES-IF YOU DO NOT KNOW A TERM OR WORD-LOOK IT UP!!! 3. MAKE SURE THERE IS AT LEAST A ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY FOR EACH TOPIC 4. STUDY AND REVIEW, WE WILL MAKE QUICK CHART ON MONDAY! Notes: Judaism Topics Covered: (Israelites, monotheism, Judaism, Ten Commandments, Torah, Talmud, Diaspora) How did Judaism begin? The founder/ father of Judaism is Abraham. He had a covenant (or agreement) with God. I will make of you a great nation What are some key events and people in Judaism? At one point, the Jews (people who practice Judaism) are forced by drought into Egypt. Eventually they are enslaved. Eventually, Moses leads the Jews out of Egypt (the Exodus). According to Judeo Christian teaching, this happened because of the help of God (Yahweh) by the use of plagues, the parting of the Red Sea, etc. While wandering the desert after the Exodus, Moses receives the Ten Commandments from God. There are written laws for the Jews (thou shall not: worship other gods, steal, kill, covet, etc.) The Jews were at their height under David who moves the capital city of Jerusalem in an effort to unite the tribes. After the tribes of Israel fall to the Assyrians and the tribes of Judah fall to the Chaldeans ( New Babylonians ), the Jews scatter across the region. This is known as the Diaspora. What are the key ideas/vocabulary of Judaism? Abraham=founder Yahweh=God Torah=holy book Talmud=book of laws based on the Torah Ten Commandments=rules for behavior/laws Monotheism=belief in one God Diaspora= scattering of the Jews after the Babylonian Exile Synagogue=place of worship Jews=followers of Judaism

2 Notes: Hinduism Part I Topics Covered: (What are the origins of Hinduism?, What is the caste system?, rigid class structure, reincarnation) What are the origins (beginnings) of Hinduism? Aryans (1500 BC) invade the Indus Valley (India) through mountain passes in the Hindu Kush; conquer the valley & Ganges Plain, develop their own society Cattle were basis of diet and economy ( money ) eventually become sacred No written language, spoke Sanskrit; later development of writing collection of hymns, poems, legends, rituals in books: the Vedas, only remains of Aryan people What is the caste system? The caste system is the social class system of Hindu India. There is no social mobility (this means you cannot move up or down the social class system). You are born into your varna (class or group) and occupation. This is also called a rigid class structure. The only hope to move up was to die and have your soul be reborn into a higher varna in the next life. Reincarnation rebirth of the soul Below is a diagram of the caste system: In the next section: See how Hinduism helps maintain the caste system. (In other words, how can a person be reborn into a higher varna?)

3 Notes: Hinduism Part II Topics Covered: (Key vocabulary for Hinduism: reincarnation, karma, dharma, ahimsa, moksha, polytheism, key writings of Hinduism) How does Hinduism relate to the caste system? The caste system (see part I notes) is a rigid class structure with no social mobility (you could not move up or down you were born into your class (varna)). The only way to move up in the caste system was to die and have your soul reincarnated (reborn) into a higher varna o In order for your soul to be reincarnated into a higher varna, you had to have good karma. Karma is your quality of life (basically the sum of your good or bad deeds in life). Once way in which you get good karma is to fulfill your dharma (and to follow some of the practices and ideas listed below). Your dharma is your duties or responsibilities that you would have according to your placement in the caste system. So.how does Hinduism help maintain the caste system? Imagine you have a low ranking on the caste system. You would know that you cannot move up or down. You believe, however, that your soul can be reborn (reincarnation) into a higher varna in your next life. Therefore, even though you don t like your varna/job/role in society, you would fulfill your dharma (duties) so you had good karma and your soul would be reincarnated into a higher varna. What are other important teachings and writings of Hinduism? Ahimsa the idea that one should be non violent toward all living things. Hindus believed all living things had a soul and were part of a universal spirit (Brahman Nerguna) Moksha the freedom from reincarnation. How could you reach moksha? Prayer, rituals, self denial, and rejecting worldly possessions. Lower varnas could not achieve moksha. Hindus are polytheistic. This means they believe in more than one god. (Look in the part three notes for more info about this.) Key writings: o Upanishads a collection of different Hindu writings o Mahabharata 100,000 verses. Different authors writings about history, philosophy, etc. o Ramayana main idea: the struggle of good vs. evil

4 Notes: Hinduism Part III Topics Covered: (some of the gods of Hinduism, impact of Hinduism on India) What are some of the gods of Hinduism? Hindus are polytheistic (they believe in more than one god) The three chief gods of Hinduism represent the Hindu life cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth. They are: Brahma the creator (birth) Vishnu the preserver (life) Shiva the destroyer (death and rebirth) Other gods of Hinduism include: Ganesha remover of obstacles Krishna appears in Mahabharata and is sometimes credited as author of the Bhagavad Gita Rama self control and virtue How has Hinduism impacted India? In recent times, the government of India has banned discrimination based on caste. In many rural areas, traditional roles based on the caste system are still prevalent. Regents Question: When I go to the office, I put on my shirt and I take off my caste; when I come home, I take off my shirt and I put on my caste. What is the main idea of this quotation? 1. the caste system continues to influence Indian society 2. the caste system has been reflected by most Indians 3. successful urban workers in India belong the same Caste 4. the Indian government officially supports the Caste system Two people who have spoken out for the plight of the outcastes/pariahs/untouchables: Mohandas Gandhi Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha we ll talk about him tomorrow) rejected the caste system.

5 Notes: Daoism, Legalism, the Qin Dynasty and the Han Dynasty Topics Covered: Daoism, Legalism, Qin Dynasty, Han Dynasty, Great Wall of China, Silk Road Who was Daoism (Taoism)? Daoism (Taoism) was a philosophy developed by Laozi in the 500s BC He was against the idea that people had specific roles (so in many ways, he s the opposite of Confucius!) He turned to nature and believed that society is what corrupted people WORD ASSOCIATION: Daoism (Taoism) = nature!!! What are the key achievements of the Qin Dynasty? The Qin Dynasty is founded by Qin Shihuangdi after the fall of the Zhou Dynasty. Qin Shihuangdi: Set up a standardized system of: weights and measures, written language, coins, and law. o Under the Qin Dynasty, laws were based on the idea of legalism. Legalism is the idea that human beings are evil by nature and therefore, society should be based laws with harsh punishments. Social order would be preserved by strict adherence to laws for fear of these punishments. Used forced labor to build public works projects like canals, roads, and: o The Great Wall: took 300,000 peasants to build it. It was supposed to protect the northern border from nomadic invaders (limit foreign influence). Mainly, it was the connecting and lengthening of pre existing defensive walls. Worked to rewrite the history of China by burning books and executing scholars who refused to ignore the past history. After Shihuangdi died, people believe he lost the Mandate of Heaven and the dynasty fell apart. What were the key achievements of the Han Dynasty? The Han dynasty reached its height under Wudi and conquered lands like Korea, Manchuria and northern India. Under the Han Dynasty, China: developed a major trade route that ran from China to Eastern Europe: The Silk Road. The Silk Road leads to the exchange of products and ideas (cultural diffusion). Experienced the Pax Sinica a 400 year period of peace and prosperity. Established the civil service system (exams) according to the Confucian belief in educated government officials, a person would have to perform well on a test to get a government job. Han society was based on many Confucian ideas (filial piety, social and family roles, etc.) Calculated the solar year of 365 ¼ days Developed acupuncture Began widespread trading of silk (that s why the trade route was called the Silk Road) Invented paper, the compass, the first printed books, and gunpowder.

6 Notes: Buddhism Part II Topics Covered: What are the key teachings/beliefs/practices of Buddhism? Where is Buddhism currently practiced? What are the key beliefs/teachings/practices of Buddhism? Buddha believed that the key to ending suffering was to understand the Four Noble Truths and to follow the Eightfold Path. The Four Noble Truths: 1. Life is suffering. 2. Suffering is caused by desire. 3. To eliminate suffering you must eliminate desires. 4. Eliminate desires by following the Eightfold Path The Eightfold Path: Buddha believed that by living a life of moderation (avoiding extremes) a person could break the cycle of reincarnation and reach nirvana Nirvana an end to the cycle of reincarnation and a oneness with the universe. Buddha also rejected the caste system and believed that everyone was born equal and could achieve nirvana. After Buddha s death, Buddhism was spread by monks from India into China, Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia. In fact, most Buddhists today aren t Indian! (The spread of Buddhism is an example of cultural diffusion!)

7 Notes: Confucius and Confucianism Topics Covered: Confucius, Confucianism, filial piety, reciprocity, Five Relationships, Analects, Impact of Confucius Who was Confucius and what was his goal? Confucius was a government official in China whose goal was to create social order (to end disorder) What are the key teachings of Confucius/Confucianism? Remember that Confucius wanted social order. He believed China could create social order by following these teachings: Reciprocity you should not do things to people that you would not want them to do to you. Very similar to the Golden Rule in Christianity Filial Piety people should respect their elders and those in positions of authority. Five Relationships Confucius believed that these relationships summed up all relationships in society. In general, one person in the relationship is in a position of authority. That person was to be respected by the other, but was expected to be compassionate, respectful and be a good example to others. o 5 Relationships: Ruler and Subject Parent and Child Husband and Wife Older sibling and Younger sibling Older Friend and Younger Friend Government officials should be educated. He believed in a meritocracy a government in which the highest qualified earned government positions. This would prevent people from hiring supporters, friends, and family members to government jobs. If the best were hired, the government would run efficiently. Confucius followers wrote his teachings down in a book called the Analects. What impact did Confucius have on China? Confucius idea that government officials should be educated led to the development of the civil service exams in China. These were tests that must be taken in order to get a government job. The idea was that the person who scored the highest was the most deserving and would get the job.

8 Notes: Daoism, Legalism, the Qin Dynasty and the Han Dynasty Topics Covered: Daoism, Legalism, Qin Dynasty, Han Dynasty, Great Wall of China, Silk Road Who was Daoism (Taoism)? Daoism (Taoism) was a philosophy developed by Laozi in the 500s BC He was against the idea that people had specific roles (so in many ways, he s the opposite of Confucius!) He turned to nature and believed that society is what corrupted people WORD ASSOCIATION: Daoism (Taoism) = nature!!! What are the key achievements of the Qin Dynasty? The Qin Dynasty is founded by Qin Shihuangdi after the fall of the Zhou Dynasty. Qin Shihuangdi: Set up a standardized system of: weights and measures, written language, coins, and law. o Under the Qin Dynasty, laws were based on the idea of legalism. Legalism is the idea that human beings are evil by nature and therefore, society should be based laws with harsh punishments. Social order would be preserved by strict adherence to laws for fear of these punishments. Used forced labor to build public works projects like canals, roads, and: o The Great Wall: took 300,000 peasants to build it. It was supposed to protect the northern border from nomadic invaders (limit foreign influence). Mainly, it was the connecting and lengthening of pre existing defensive walls. Worked to rewrite the history of China by burning books and executing scholars who refused to ignore the past history. After Shihuangdi died, people believe he lost the Mandate of Heaven and the dynasty fell apart. What were the key achievements of the Han Dynasty? The Han dynasty reached its height under Wudi and conquered lands like Korea, Manchuria and northern India. Under the Han Dynasty, China: developed a major trade route that ran from China to Eastern Europe: The Silk Road. The Silk Road leads to the exchange of products and ideas (cultural diffusion). Experienced the Pax Sinica a 400 year period of peace and prosperity. Established the civil service system (exams) according to the Confucian belief in educated government officials, a person would have to perform well on a test to get a government job. Han society was based on many Confucian ideas (filial piety, social and family roles, etc.) Calculated the solar year of 365 ¼ days Developed acupuncture Began widespread trading of silk (that s why the trade route was called the Silk Road) Invented paper, the compass, the first printed books, and gunpowder.

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