Section 1 The Indo-Europeans. Global Studies I Chapter 3. Indo-European Language Family. Migrations. Hittite Empire. Hittites

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1 Section 1 The Indo-Europeans Global Studies I Chapter 3 Indo-Europeans Nomadic peoples from the Eurasian steppes Dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus ( the Great Steppe ) People and Ideas on the Move, BCE 1 2 Indo-European Language Family Migrations Movements of a people group from one region to another 3 4 Hittites Hittite Empire Occupied Anatolia by 2000 BCE Huge peninsula with plentiful resources Capital city Hattusas Peace treaties with Egypt Adopted Akkadian language and Mesopotamian culture (arts, laws, literature, etc.) Iron technology!!! 5 6 1

2 Egyptian-Hittite Peace Treaty Hittite Chariot 7 8 Aryans in India Vedas sacred literature of Aryans Caste System based largely on race/language 4 groups (based on jobs) Brahmins (priests) Warriors Traders and landowners Peasants or traders Mahabharata ancient epic that tells the story of Aryans conquering India Constant violence/confusion leads many to speculate about the gods and humans in the world 9 Section 2 Hinduism and Buddhism Develop Hindusim Collection of beliefs that developed over time Vedas Aryan sacred literature Upanishads try to explain Vedas Moksha state of perfect understanding, release from life Atman vs. Brahman Reincarnation continual rebirth of the soul until moksha is achieved Karma good or bad deeds 10 Hindu Changes Brahma Brahman seen as having three personalities Brahma creator Vishnu protector Shiva destroyer Jainism everything in the universe has a soul and should not be harmed

3 Vishnu Shiva Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama Founded by Siddhartha Gautama Nobly-born 29 years of age, ventures outside the castle Old man, sick man, corpse, holy man at peace Decides to seek for enlightenment, leaves castle Tried debating and fasting, but did not find enlightenment Enlightenment came after 49 days of meditation Known as the Buddha the enlightened one Buddha s First Sermon Buddha s Teachings Four Noble Truths Life is filled with suffering and sorrow. The cause of all suffering is people s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world. The way to end all suffering is to end all desires. The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way between desires and self-denial

4 Teachings (cnt d) Eightfold Path (Middle Way) Staircase (master one step at a time) Usually occurred over many lifetimes Right views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration Nirvana release from selfishness and pain Section 3 Seafaring Traders Minoans powerful seafaring people who dominated trade in Mediterranean from 2000 to 1400 BCE Lived on Crete, island at southern edge of Aegean Sea (sea between Greece and Anatolia) Stepping stone Knossos capital city King Minos legendary king who kept the Minotaur in a labyrinth Aegean Sea Minotaur Theseus Slays the Minotaur Phoenicia Phoenicians major trading power of the Mediterranean (current lands = Lebanon) Confederation of wealthy city-states Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, Carthage!!! Shipbuilders and seafarers Strait of Gibraltar, around Africa Tyre murex (1 pound of dye = 60,000 snails) ALPHABET!!! Carried by traders, adopted/adapted by other cultures

5 Phoenician Empire Phoenician Ship Phoenician Alphabet Section 4 The Origins of Judaism Palestine region at eastern end of Mediterranean, including Canaan Canaan ancient home of the Hebrews Palestine = ancient cultural crossroads East Assyria and Babylonia West Egypt Torah first five books of Hebrew Bible Abraham father of the Hebrews Hebrew Language Abraham and Isaac

6 Yahweh Moses Monotheism belief in a single god Yahweh ruled over all peoples everywhere Covenant NOT sacrifices and rituals Moses lawgiver of Israel, Exodus After Moses death, the Hebrews returned to Canaan and became a settled people Loose organization into twelve tribes Judges military/judicial leaders during crisis Kingdom Saul, David, Solomon ( BCE) First three kings of Israel Solomon Builds the temple and the royal palace Temple housed the Ark of the Covenant Builds a trading empire with the help of Tyre Building projects drained the kingdom s finances and caused unrest among the people Kingdom Splits 922 BCE the kingdom divides in two Next 200 years = chaos Assyrians and Babylonians invade, conquer, and demand tribute (peace money) 722 BCE Israel fell to the Assyrians 586 BCE Judah fell to Nebuchadnezzar Babylonian Captivity Later released by Cyrus the Great Solomon s Temple Solomon s Palace

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