Religion and Philosophy during the Classical Era. Key Concept 2.1 The development and codification of religious and cultural traditions

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1 Religion and Philosophy during the Classical Era Key Concept 2.1 The development and codification of religious and cultural traditions

2 Breaking down the WHAP standard As empires increased in size and interactions between people increased, cultural and religious systems were transformed Religious and belief systems provided a bond among people and an ethical code to live by Religious beliefs influenced and reinforced political, economic, and occupational stratification Religious and political authority often merged as rulers used religion, along with military and legal structures, to justify their rule and ensure its continuation Religion and belief systems could also generate conflict, partly because beliefs and practices varied greatly within and among societies

3 The Emergence of Legalism, Confucianism, and Daoism in China

4 China s Search for Order Weakened state of China Zhou (pronounced Jo) dynasty declined by 500 BCE Era of Warring States ( BCE) Period of chaos, violence, and disharmony in China Territorial princes used resources to build, strengthen, and expand their own states Fought with each other for power

5 If rewards are high, then what the ruler wants will be quickly effected; if punishments are heavy, what he does not want will be swiftly prevented Legalism

6 The Legalist Answer Laws and rules were clearly spelled and strictly enforced through a system of rewards and punishments Believed human nature is naturally selfish and people are stupid and short-sided Power lie in the hands of the state and its rulers Farmers and solders good!!! Merchants, aristocrats, and scholars bad and useless Policy adopted by Qin (Chin) Dynasty under Shihuangdi

7 Never give a sword to man who can t dance Confucianism

8 The Confucian Answer Confucius ( BCE) Collected teachings in the book The Analects Believed the moral example of superiors was the key to restore social harmony Five Relationships Ruler to Subject Father to Son Elder Brother to Younger Brother Husband to Wife Friend to Friend

9 The Confucian Answer Shaped family and gender relationships as well as political and social relationships Reinforced patriarchal society Stressed filial piety Emphasized the importance of education Could use to help solve problems of government Confucius did not promise an eternal reward Confucianism is a philosophy for this life, NOT a religion Confucianism lasted and held China together for centuries

10 Discussion Time! What are some benefits and limitations of a system such as Confucianism that has very rigid expecations?

11 Discussion Time! How does family life under Confucianism compare to family life today?

12 Give up learning and put an end to your troubles Daoism

13 The Daoist Answer Critics of Confucianism Ridicule emphasis on education and moral improvement artificial and useless Urged withdrawal into nature and spontaneous behavior Confucius roams within society, Laozi wanders beyond. Encourages humans to look away from human creations and find peace and balance in nature s examples Influential in Chinese medical practices such as acupuncture Architecture blends into the landscape Best known symbol: Yin-Yang balance

14 Religions in Classical India

15 Hinduism No single founder Response to brahmin cults Develops over many years in India Early on, beliefs passed through oral tradition Later recorded in sacred texts, including the Vedas and the Upanishads Hinduism Teaches that there are many manifestations of the Great Soul of the Universe (Brahman)(a trinity = trimurti)

16 Hinduism Caste System was of central importance in India All living things participate in the caste system Cycles of reincarnation elevate their souls to the highest level of spirituality or MOKSHA, when the soul becomes one with Braman, the Great Soul The process can take hundreds of years and thousands of lifetimes A soul can move up or down the ladder toward Moksha depending on Dharma (deeds) and sincerity

17 Brahmin Priests, scholars, and teachers Famous members include: Jawaharlal Nehru: India s first prime minister Kshatriyas Vaisya Warriors and rulers Famous members include: Vasundhara Raje Scindia: Chief minister of the Indian state of Rajasthan Traders Famous members include: Mohandas Gandhi: Independence leader of India Sudras Manural workers and servants Untouchables or Dalits Perform unpleasant jobs like cleaning or leather tanning

18 Hinduism Karma Teaches one s social position in life was a sign of good or bad deeds performed in a previous life Levels of Caste If one moved higher on ladder they had demonstrated good karma in a previous life If one moved down, bad karma The strongest social glue of India The Big Constant Empires come and go Many invaders Other Religions

19

20 Happiness does not depend on what you have or who are you. It solely relies on what you think Buddhism

21 Buddhism Began in South Asia (Northern India) c. 500 BCE Founder: Prince Siddhartha Gautama Hindu of the Brahman class Called the Buddha or The Enlightened One Maintained Hinduism s belief in reincarnation, however it sharply challenged prevailing Hindu thinking NO Caste System ALL share the same ability to reach NIRVANA Ridiculed rituals and sacrifices as irrelevant to the hard work of dealing with one s suffering The closer to Nirvana, the less troubled one would be by the cares of this world

22 Buddhism Main teachings maintain that the point to live and to achieving Nirvana was to bring about the end of suffering The Four Noble Truths In life, there is suffering Suffering comes from selfish desire Those seeking the path to nirvana should strive to end suffering Suffering can end by following the Eight-Fold Path

23 Buddism The Eight-Fold Path Right View Right Intention Right Speech Right Action Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration Those who truly followed the Eight-Fold Path would discover the truth regarding a Supreme Being when they reached nirvana

24 Review!!!! Based on today s notes, how did the codification of religious traditions provide a bond among people and provide an ethical code to live by? How did religious beliefs affect the social order? How did belief systems affect gender roles during the classical age?

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