EARLY WORLD RELIGIONS

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1 EARLY WORLD RELIGIONS Hinduism Buddhism Confucianism Legalism Daoism Judaism Christianity (Islam will be in the next unit)

2 Religions of South Asia

3 Religion in the Subcontinent

4 Hinduism

5 What is Hinduism? One of the oldest religions About 1500 B.C.E. Began in India Gave birth to Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism Tolerance and diversity "Truth is one, paths are many There is only one God, but endless are his aspects and endless are his names We are not human beings having spiritual experiences; We are spiritual beings having a human experience!

6 What do Hindus believe? Hinduism has no formal theology that defines God It is henotheistic (acknowledging many but worshiping only one) Brahman One impersonal Ultimate Reality Manifest as many personal deities Atman The soul, Brahma trapped in matter Samsara Reincarnation atman is continually born into this world lifetime after lifetime Karma Spiritual impurity due to actions keeps us bound to this world (good and bad) Moksha Ultimate goal of life to release Atman and reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman Vedas Truth: myths, rituals, chants

7 Major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Brahma, the creator god Vishnu, the preserver god Shiva, god of constructive destruction (the transformer)

8 What are the spiritual practices of Hinduism? Yoga seeking union with the divine: Guru a spiritual teacher, especially helpful for Jnana and Raja yoga Bhakti Yoga worship, seeking union with the divine through loving devotion to manifest deities In the home (household shrines) In the temples (priests officiate)

9 How does Hinduism direct life in this world? Respect for all life vegetarian Human life as supreme: Four stations of life (Caste) - priests & teachers, nobles & warriors, merchant class, servant class Four stages of life student, householder, retired, wandering philosopher Four duties of life pleasure, success, social responsibilities, religious responsibilities (moksha)

10 Buddhism

11 The essence of Buddhism The middle way of wisdom and compassion. The 3 jewels of Buddhism: Buddha, the teacher. Dharma, the teachings. Sangha, the community.

12 Siddhartha Gautama ( BCE) Born as prince in NE India (Nepal) At 29 rejected luxurious life to seek enlightenment and source of suffering Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation and found nirvana Became The Enlightened One, at 35

13 What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire! Therefore, extinguish the self, don t obsess about oneself.

14 Four Noble Truths 1. There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. 2. The cause of suffering is selfcentered desire and attachments. 3. The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. 4. To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.

15 Eightfold Path Nirvana The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.

16 Buddha 19c Thailand Buddha 2c Pakistan

17 Mandala: Wheel of Life Motifs

18 Types of Buddhism Therevada Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism. Found in southern Asia. Focus on wisdom and meditation. Goal: is to become a Buddha, or Enlightened One. Mahayana Buddhism Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan). Buddhism for the masses. Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those enlightened few.

19 Types of Buddhism Zen Buddhism Seeks sudden enlightenment through meditation, arriving at emptiness Use of meditation masters Beauty, art, and aesthetics, such as gardens & calligraphy Tibetan Buddhism Developed in Tibet in the 7c CE. A mix of Theravada and Mahayana Include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama

20 Growth of Buddhism

21 Hinduism only Caste system Animal sacrifice Both Reincarnation Cyclical view of history Belief in a state of enlightenment (Hindu moksha, Buddhist nirvana) Buddhism only The Middle Way (Eightfold Path) Four Noble Truths

22 Confucianism

23 * B.C.E. * Born in the feudal state of Liu * Became a teacher and editor of books

24 Li --> Rite, rules, ritual decorum (Binding force of an enduring stable society) Ren --> humaneness, benevolence, humanity Shu --> Reciprocity, empathy Do not do unto others what you would not want others to do unto you. Yi --> Righteousness Xiao --> Filial Piety (Respect your elders!)

25 1. Ruler Subject 2. Father Son * Status * Age * Gender 3. Husband Wife 4. Older Brother Younger Brother 5. Older Friend Younger Friend

26

27 * The single most important Confucian work. *Knowing what he knows and knowing what he doesn t know, is characteristics of the person who knows. *Making a mistake and not correcting it, is making another mistake. *The superior man blames himself; the inferior man blames others. *To go too far is as wrong as to fall short.

28

29 * The emperor is the example of proper behavior --> big daddy * Social relationships are based on rites or rituals * Even religious rituals are important for SOCIAL, not religious reasons

30 INDIA 1. Brahmin CHINA 1. Scholar-Gentry 2. Kshatriyas 2. Peasants 3. Vaishyas 4. Shudras Untouchables 3. Artisans 4. Merchants Domestic Slaves

31 Legalism

32 * 280? B.C.E. * Late Warring States period * Legalism became political philosophy of Qin [Ch in] Dynasty

33 1. Human nature is naturally selfish. 2. Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged. 3. Law is the supreme authority and replaces morality. 4. The ruler must rule with a strong, punishing hand. 5. War is the means of strengthening a ruler s power.

34 One who favors the principle that individuals should obey a powerful authority rather than exercise individual freedom.

35 Daoism

36 *604 B.C.E. -? * His name means Old Master * Was he Confucius teacher?

37 1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. 2. A believer s goal is to become one with Dao; one with nature. 3. Wu wei --> Let nature take its course. --> The art of doing nothing. --> Go with the flow! 4. Man is unhappy because he lives according to man-made laws, customs & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature.

38 To escape the social, political, & cultural traps of life, one must escape by: 1. Rejecting formal knowledge and learning. 2. Relying on the senses and instincts. 3. Discovering the nature and rhythm of the universe. 4. Ignoring political and social laws.

39 * Feminine * Passive * Darkness * Cold * Weak * Earth; Moon * Masculine * Active * Light * Warmth * Strong * Heaven; Sun

40 How is a man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity?? Confucianism --> Moral order in society Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order Daoism --> Freedom for individuals and less government to avoid uniformity and conformity

41 Judaism

42 5 Judaism Monotheistic, believing in one true God Omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent Unity and singularity of God as He is revealed though Torah Sh ma cornerstone of all Jewish belief. Deuteronomy 6:4 Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one. Israelites believed they were God s chosen people. They believed that God would lead them to promised land.

43 Judaism Born in grace, live in grace, and die in grace Sin is not a fact of birth, it is a matter of choice Olam Ha-Ba: The World to Come Messiah will reign Jewish temple will be rebuilt Nation of Israel will be fully restored World order of justice and compassion.

44 5 Teachings on Law and Morality Jewish prophets, or spiritual leaders, preached code of ethics, or moral standards of behavior Torah laws that addressed all aspects of life, from cleanliness and food preparation to criminal matters Ten Commandments

45 Significant Jewish Holy Days Shabbat Sabbath day of rest Friday sundown through Saturday sundown Prohibited: work, travel, commerce Yom Kippur "Day of Atonement" Atone for sins of past year sins between man and God On Yom Kippur, judgments of God are entered into the books and then sealed Rosh Hashanah New Year, plan better life and begin introspection Passover commemorate Israelites escape from Egypt Personal journey from slavery to freedom

46 Christianity

47 EARLY CHRISTIANITY Roots Judaism Teachings of John the Baptist, Jesus, and apostles Earliest converts were Jews who did not think they were breaking away from Hebrew Law Early Christians wished to be considered Jews Jewish religion officially recognized by Roman government and its adherents had certain privileges

48 BELIEFS Based on belief that Jesus is the Christ/Messiah, the son of God One of Trinity God the Father, Son, Holy Spirit Teachings In Gospels 12 disciples Death at 33 By believing in Jesus, his followers will go to Heaven at their death Bible is Word of God Holy days Christmas & Easter

49 EARLY WORLD RELIGIONS Hinduism Buddhism Confucianism Legalism Daoism Judaism Christianity (Islam will be in the next unit)

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