These theories were developed to reinstate peace after the Period of the Warring States.

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1 Chinese Philosophy

2 Three major Chinese theories 1.Confucianism 2.Daoism 3.Legalism These theories were developed to reinstate peace after the Period of the Warring States.

3 China was in a state of chaos Confucianism isn t properly speaking a religion; it s a way of behaving so you ll do the right things. Confucius was a great thinker and teacher, who believed that people needed a sense of duty to be good. *

4 Confucianism taught that all men with a talent for government should take part in government. This idea opened government up to the lower classes. This caused him to be disliked by the aristocrats. How dare Confucius think the peasants are as good as us!

5 How should people act in the basic relationships? People must obey & respect those above them and in return, those with authority need to set a good example What influence did Confucius have on the Chinese government? Civil servants had to take a test on Confucian teachings before they were awarded jobs Government jobs were no longer given only to sons of the rich

6 5 Basic Relationships What are the 5 basic relationships? 1.Ruler & Subject 2.Husband & Wife 3.Father & Son 4.Older Sibling & Younger Sibling 5.Friend & Friend

7 Excerpt from The Analects of Confucius, c.400 BCE Do not do unto others, what you would not want others to do to you If you make a mistake and do not correct it, this is called a mistake

8 Confucianism was a social code of behavior, a very set and rigid code of behavior, that honored ancestors and ancient rituals. Everything had to be done a certain way. One of his rules, for example, was that gentlemen could only display their skill as archers on three hunts a year, in the spring, autumn, and winter. There's a saying about Confucius: "If the mat was not straight, the Master would not sit." You might think to yourself: "Wow. What a fussy." But think about it. In English, if you write a sentence, the first word must start with a capital letter and the last word must end with a period, an exclamation point, or a question mark. Otherwise, it's not a sentence. "If the mat was not straight, the Master would not sit. Today, the Chinese celebrate Confucius Birthday (Teacher's Day), in honor of their ancestor, the

9 Daoism Daoism teaches that people should give up worldly desires and encourages the importance of nature. Daoism was created by the scholar and teacher Laozi.

10 Daoism According to Daoism, how should people discover to behave? People discover how to behave by learning to live in harmony with the way of nature What are yin & yang? Opposite forces of nature According to Daoists, how should rulers behave? Rulers should rule as little as possible

11 Legalism is the belief that society needs a system of harsh laws and punishments. The scholar Hanfeizi developed Legalism. *

12 Legalism Hanfeizi was a prince a ruler should have absolute power backed by military rights Qin dynasty apply the teachings of Hanfeizi by passing strict laws and harshly punishing people that didn t obey them

13 Aristocrats liked the philosophy of Legalism because it favored force and power and did not require rulers to show kindness or understanding China s aristocratic families owned large estates in early China. They lived in large houses with tile roofs, courtyards, and gardens. Fine furniture and silk hangings filled their rooms, and their houses were surrounded by walls to keep out bandits.

14 The Han Dynasty

15 Liu Bang founded the Han dynasty in 202 B. C. Civil service examinations began when Han Wudi started testing potential government employees. Students prepared for many years to take the exams. The population tripled during the Han dynasty. Farmers had to divide their land among more and more sons, which left them with very little land. Farmers sold their land to aristocrats and became tenant farmers to survive.

16 The Chinese invented many new products during the Han dynasty, such as the waterwheel, the rudder, drill bits, steel, and paper.

17 With the invention of the rudder, the Chinese could move ships' sails differently. Ships could now sail into the wind rather than with it. This meant Chinese ships could travel to the islands of Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean.

18 E. Chinese doctors began practicing acupuncture, the practice of easing pain by sticking needles into patients skin.

19 Science What did Chinese astronomers discover? They discovered that the moon shines because it reflects the light of the sun Solar eclipses happen when the moon blocks the view of the sun For what purpose were the first compasses used? Determine where to build temples, graves, and homes

20 The Silk Road

21 The Silk Road -from China to Mediterranean to Rome -over 4000 miles -Each had something the other wanted. Rome had gold and silver and precious gems. China had silk and spices and ivory. Ideas also traveled along the Silk Road, ideas that affected everyone.

22 The Romans were not surprised to find another civilization hidden over the mountains. They had been looking for the Silk People for a long time. They discovered pieces of silk from the people they conquered. Silk quickly became popular in Rome. But the Romans did not know who was making this wonderful material. The people they conquered did not know who was making silk either. They simply traded for it.

23 A Dangerous Journey Western Route Narrow & difficult passes Lack of oxygen high in mountains Threat of animals & insects in the desert Eastern Route Bandits, sandstorms, & mirages

24 Indian merchants and teachers brought Buddhism from India to China. The Han dynasty fell after wars, rebellions, and plots against the emperor. Civil war began, and nomads invaded the country before the government collapsed. During the unrest of the fall of the Han dynasty, people found comfort in the teachings of Buddhism, and more people began practice the Buddhist religion. Buddhism helped people cope with the chaotic times.

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