WHI.04: India, China, and Persia

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1 Name: Date: Period: WHI04: India, China, and Persia WHI4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the civilizations of Persia, India, and China in terms of chronology, geography, social structures, government, economy, religion, and contributions to later civilizations by a) describing Persia, with emphasis on the development of an imperial bureaucracy; b) describing India, with emphasis on the Aryan migrations and the caste system; c) describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Hinduism; d) describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Buddhism; e) describing China, with emphasis on the development of an empire and the construction of the Great Wall; f) describing the impact of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 53

2 Essential Understandings of India, China, and Persia 1 Classical Indian civilization began in the Indus River Valley and spread to the Ganges River Valley, then through the Indian subcontinent It continued with little interruption because of its geographic location 2 The Indo-Aryan people migrated into the area, creating a structured society (caste system) and blended their beliefs with those of the indigenous people 3 During the Golden Age of classical Indian culture, Indian people made significant contributions to world civilization 4 Hinduism was an important contribution of classical India 5 Hinduism influenced Indian society and culture and is still practiced in India today 6 Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in a part of India that is in present-day Nepal 7 Buddhism became a major faith when Asoka sent missionaries throughout Asia 8 Classical China was centered on the Huang He (Yellow River) and was geographically isolated Invaders entered China from the North The Great Wall was built for China s protection 9 Chinese culture began around 1500 BC (BCE) Of Chinese contributions to civilization, Confucianism and Taoism are among the most noted 10 Built on earlier Central Asian and Mesopotamian civilizations, Persia developed the largest empire in the world Essential Questions about India, China, and Persia 1 Why were physical geography and location important to the development of Indian civilization? 2 What impact did the Aryans have on India? 3 Why was the caste system central to Indian culture? 4 What were the accomplishments of the Mauryan and Gupta empires? 5 What are the beliefs of the Hindu religion? 6 How did Hinduism influence Indian society and culture? 7 What are the beliefs of Buddhism? 8 How did Buddhism spread? 9 Why was the Great Wall of China built? 10 What were contributions of classical China to world civilization? 11 Why were Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism important in the formation of Chinese culture? 12 How did Persia govern its empire? Why do I need to know this? 1 Almost one fifth of the world s people today practice Hinduism and Buddhism 2 The diversity of peoples, cultures, beliefs, and languages in India continues to pose challenges to Indian unity today 3 The people, events, and ideas that shaped China s early history continue to influence China s role in today s world 4 The pattern of a strong central government has remained a permanent part of Chinese life 5 Tolerance and wise government are characteristics of the most successful methods of rule Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 54

3 Map of India, China and Persia Persian Empire Under Darius Gupta Empire Using the pages indicated, label the following on the map Color where directed Page 94 ANATOLIA, Sardis, Memphis, Nineveh, Babylon, Susa, The Royal Road Color in the PERSIAN EMPIRE under Darius Page 175 Color in the Gupta Empire and areas under Gupta influence Page 182 Chang an, The Great Wall Color in the HAN DYNASTY Page Label the Silk Roads and then trace them in some bright color Han Dynasty Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 55

4 India Hinduism 1 Who were the Aryans? a How did they get into India? 2 The Caste System 3 Who was the founder of Hinduism? 4 What are the religious writings of Hinduism? 5 What are the basic beliefs of Hinduism? a Ultimate view of religion b Moksha c Reincarnation d Dharma e Karma 6 Who is the Hindu Deity? Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 56

5 India Jainism 1 What is Jainism? India Buddhism 1 Who founded Buddhism? 2 What are the major writings of Buddhism? 3 What does Buddha mean? 4 What are the Four Noble Truths? a b c d 5 What is the Eightfold Path? 6 What are the basic beliefs of Buddhism? a Nirvana b Reincarnation c Karma d Caste System e Polytheism of Hinduism 7 Theravada Buddhism 8 Mahayana Buddhism 9 Spread of Buddhism Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 57

6 Venn Diagram comparing/contrasting Hinduism and Buddhism Directions: Fill in the following Venn diagram comparing and contrasting Hinduism and Buddhism Consider the following while filling in the diagram 1) Founders, 2) where founded, 3) beliefs, etc Hinduism Buddhism (different) Both (different) (Same) Origin/Founder Deity Basic Beliefs Spread of Religion Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 58

7 India Mauryan Empire 1 What areas of India did the Aryans spread into? How do we know about this spread of the Aryans? 2 Who was the leader that helped the Mauryan Empire take power around 320 BCE? a What did he do that no one else had ever done in India before? 3 Why is Ashoka (Asoka) considered to be the greatest ruler of the Mauryan Empire? India Gupta Empire 1 Who founded the Gupta Empire in India? a How did he differ from Ashoka in his beliefs? 2 How was it that India was able to prosper? a What is advantageous about India s geographical location? 3 Many great achievements were made during the Gupta Empire which is also known as the Golden Age of India a Math b Medicine c Astronomy d Literature Who was Khalidasa? Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 59

8 4 What products were traded along the Indian Ocean and through the Silk Routes? China Warring States Period ( BC) 1 What were the dynasties we ve discussed so far? 2 What were some of the things we should remember about the Zhou Dynasty? 3 What was the Warring States Period? China Confucianism 1 What did Confucius believe was the key to social order? 2 What is filial piety? 3 What did he stress as the key to career advancement? China Daoism (Taoism) 1 Who created Daoism? 2 What do Daoists (Taoists) believe is the key to order in the world? 3 What is the basic philosophy behind Daoism? Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 60

9 China Legalism 1 Who founded Legalism? 2 What are the main beliefs of Legalism? China Yin and Yang 1 What is the philosophy behind Yin and Yang? 2 What does the Yin represent? 3 What does the Yang represent? China Q in Dynasty ( BC) 1 Who was the first ruler of the Q in Dynasty a Which Chinese philosophy did he adhere to? b What is an autocracy? 2 What did Shi Huangdi do as a setback to China? 3 What did Shi Huangdi do to unify/protect China? China Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD) 1 What type of government did the Han dynasty adopt? 2 What was the civil service system? 3 What were the other accomplishments of the Han? 4 What were the trade items of the Han Dynasty? Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 61

10 Chinese Philosophies Directions: Copy the chart from page 99 of your text Then answer the question below the chart Lastly, using your notes on page 51, fill in the characteristics of the yin and yang symbol Chinese Ethical Systems Confucianism Daoism Legalism Which of these systems seems to be most moderate and balanced? Explain Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 62

11 Persia Cyrus the Great 1 Where did Cyrus conquer? 2 Explain Cyrus s governing style a b c d Persia Darius the Great 1 How far did he extend the Persian Empire? a What was his only failure? 2 What was Darius s greatest legacy? 3 How did he govern the Persian Empire? a b c d Persia Zoroastrianism 1 What is the main belief of Zoroastrianism? a Ahura Mazda b Ahriman 2 What are the holy books of Zoroastrianism called? 3 How is Zoroastrianism similar to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam? Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 63

12 Darius I (Darius the Great) Directions: Read the following biography on Darius I of Persia and answer the questions at the bottom of the page Though Darius was an excellent soldier and extended his empire east, north, and into Europe, he saw himself as an organizer and lawgiver rather than as a mere conqueror Little of his work was startlingly original, but the blending of the old and new and the interlocked ordering of the whole gave his work importance He divided the empire into 20 huge provinces called satrapies, each under a royally appointed governor called a satrap who had administrative, military, financial, and judicial control in his province To check on such powerful subordinates, Darius also appointed the satrap's second-incommand, having him report to the King separately Permanent local armies were commanded by generals and were stationed in each satrapy However, since all these officials were more or less permanent, there remained the possibility that all three might conspire to plot revolt Accordingly, a further set of royal officials - inspectors called the King's "eyes and ears" - were frequently sent out Since in so huge an empire - it covered some 1 million square miles - there was always the problem of communication and transportation, Darius established a system of well-maintained all-weather roads and a royal courier system with posthouses and regular relays of horses and riders The trip from Sardis in western Asia Minor to Susa in Persia normally took 3 months; a royal message could cover it in a week Darius also regulated the tribute, which was collected irregularly as needed, on a fixed annual basis according to the wealth of each satrapy Though hardly low, this tribute does not appear to have been burdensome He also instituted the first official Persian coinage Darius was a firm supporter of Ahura Mazda, the Zoroastrian god, and believed that that Ahura Mazda "gave" him his kingdoms Zoroastrianism became the official state religion of the Persians For the empire, however, he continued Cyrus's policy of toleration of local cults, and this mildness became and remained, except under Xerxes, a distinctive feature of Persian rule 1 What were the 20 provinces that Darius I created called? What was the official name of the governor of each province called? 2 How did Darius ensure there was no possibility of revolt? 3 What did Darius I do to improve communication and transportation in his 1 million square mile empire? 4 What was Darius s policy towards religions other than Zoroastrianism in Persia? 5 In your opinion, was Darius a good ruler? Why or why not? Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 64

13 Glossary WHI4: India, China, and Persia Directions: Fill in the definition for the term listed Then, in the box on the right, you have to draw a picture OR write the definition in your own words OR write a sentence using the word that demonstrates its meeting Aryans Reincarnation Karma Dharma Moksha Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 65

14 Glossary WHI4: India, China, and Persia Directions: Fill in the definition for the term listed Then, in the box on the right, you have to draw a picture OR write the definition in your own words OR write a sentence using the word that demonstrates its meeting Nirvana Eightfold Path Theravada Mahayana Filial Piety Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 66

15 Glossary WHI4: India, China, and Persia Directions: Fill in the definition for the term listed Then, in the box on the right, you have to draw a picture OR write the definition in your own words OR write a sentence using the word that demonstrates its meeting Bureaucracy Daoism Legalism Autocracy Civil Service System Satrap Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 67

16 Summary DIRECTIONS: Choose only one of the following: a) write a summary (25-75 words) of what you believe was the most important aspect of the notes/lecture b) write what you believe to be the most interesting or memorable part of the notes/lecture (25-75 words) c) draw something that symbolizes the notes/lecture to you (has to be different than your title page) Notes WHI04: India, China, and Persia 68

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