Religion Compare and Contrast Chart World History Mrs. Schenck

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1 Name: KEY Period: Date: Religion Compare and Contrast Chart World History Mrs. Schenck Religion Judaism Christianity Islam Followers are called MONOTHEISTIC Name for God Origin of the religion (country) AND years ago # of followers in the world (% and #) Describe the religion in one sentence. Jewish (Israelites/Hebrews) Christians Muslims Yahweh, Adonai, etc. (many, don t like to use his name, G-d) Israel 4,000 ya.22% 13 million the Torah and have a covenant relationship with God. Different words for God in different languages Israel, Roman Empire 2,000 ya 33% 2.1 billion Allah A religion where followers live by the example of the Bible and their messiah, Jesus. Saudi Arabia 1,500 ya 21 % 1.5 billion the Qur an and their prophet, Muhammad. Father of the religion Famous people/ prophets Abraham was polytheistic, the one God spoke to him and gave him the promised Land in Israel, covenant Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (Israel) Moses (Exodus/Ten Commandments) Jesus: messiah, son of God (DIVINE), taught using parables, born and raised Jewish, preacher of forgiveness, stories of him in the New Testament Muhammad: greatest prophet, NOT DIVINE, received messages from God that were recorded in the Qur an Other prophets of the Torah 12 disciples Jesus followers

2 Religion Judaism Christianity Islam Holy/ Important places Holy Scriptures/ Language Place of Worship Day of Worship Holy Days/ Celebrations Leadership Sects/ Other groups Temple Mount, Jerusalem site of Solomon s Temple (was destroyed, said to have held the arc of the covenant), Wailing/Western Wall remains today Canaan = Israel = Promised Land Torah (part of Tanahk) and Talmud - Hebrew Jerusalem where Jesus died Bethlehem where Jesus was born Bible (Old and New Testament) many languages Ka ba in Mecca, Saudi Arabia site of Abraham s sacrifice that Muhammad dedicated to Allah Medina, Saudi Arabia where Muhammad fled to, hajj Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem where Muhammad ascended into heaven Qur an - Arabic Synagogue Church Mosque Saturday (Sabbath, 7 th day of rest) Sunday (Friday) prayer 5 times a day Rosh Hashanah New Year Yom Kippur Day of Atonement Bar/Bat Mitzvah adult status Chanukah festival of light Passover remembers stories of Exodus Christmas Season time of Jesus s birth Easter Season time of Jesus s death and resurrection Confirmation adult status Ramadan remembers the revelation of the Qur an to Muhammad Eid al Fitr thanks for the strength to fast during Ramadan Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca once in life, this one occurs yearly Rabbi teacher Minister/priest/monks/nuns, etc. Imam prayer leader Orthodox Hasidic Etc. Eastern Orthodox Protestant (Baptist, Methodist, etc.) Roman Catholic Sunni Shi ah

3 Religion Judaism Christianity Islam Other Important Ideas/Beliefs Jews do NOT think Jesus is the messiah, they are still waiting for their messiah he will be human, not divine Yarmulke: cover head in synagogue to show respect for God There are 7 sacraments most Christians agree with (Baptism, Marriage, etc.) Jesus = messiah and son of God Heaven and hell Most Muslims are NOT Arab (Indonesia has the highest population, more than all of the Middle East combined) 5 Pillars: witness, prayer 5 times per day, $ to poor, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad struggle (may be internal or physical) Terrorists are EXTREMISTS or fundamentalists and do not represent the true religion Hijab head scarf worn by some Muslim women to show respect for God (other more extreme coverings are cultural/government requirements that are not addressed in the Qur an) Connection to other religions ALL monotheistic, Abrahamic religions, that share stories of the Old Testament (like the creation story, Noah s Ark, Moses, 10 commandments, Abraham, etc.) Persecution: to punish or harm someone based on religious beliefs Formed from parts of Judaism, but is NOT a part of it Refer to Jews and Christians as peoples of the book because they share Old Testament stories

4 Religion Followers are called God (s)? Origin of the religion (country) and years ago Buddhists None India 2,500 ya Buddhism Hindus Hinduism Supreme God, Brahman, is the source of all the universe all other gods are incarnations of him (forms of him - shapeshifter) 3 Main Gods Vishnu preserver Shiva destroyer Brahma - creator India 8,000 ya Founder Siddhartha Gautama - Buddha None # of followers in the world (% and #) 6% 376 million 14% 900 million A religion where follows live by the example of Describe the religion in one sentence. the Buddha and his teachings. the gods and ancient rituals of India passed down through Hinduism. Reincarnation What causes suffering in life? Cycle of birth, death, and rebirth Desire (wants) to eliminate desires you must elimante your attachments to things Cycle of birth, death, and rebirth governed by Karma (consequences of your past life determine what social class you will reborn into caste system) Karma decides what caste you will be in, based on your choices

5 Religion Buddhism Hinduism Goal Famous People Holy Books/ Language Nirvana union with the ultimate spiritual reality, freedom from the cycle of rebirth Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama) the enlightened one, born a prince then gave everything up, determined the cause of suffering in life is desire and through meditation reached Nirvana Moksha freedom from the cycle of rebirth, one with the universe Gods Vishnu preserver Shiva destroyer Brahma - creator The Vedas - Sanskrit Places of Worship Temples/pagodas, shrines, monasteries Temples, shrines, homes Holy Days/ Celebrations Leadership Sects/ Other groups Other Important Ideas/Beliefs Connections between both religions Dharma Day - marks the beginning of the Buddha's teaching Monks, bodhisattvas wise beings close to Nirvana, Dalai Lama Theravada monastic life Mahayana - largest group Tibetan Dalai Lama Zen - meditation Four Noble Truths: 1. there is suffering in the world 2. the cause of suffering is our desires 3. Eliminate desires 4. Follow the eightfold path Diwali - the festival celebrates the victory of good over evil, light over darkness and knowledge over ignorance Brahmins priestly caste Many different types in India Jainism and Sikhism are closely related to Hinduism Caste System social classes order determined by birth and karma in your previous life Meditation 8-fold Path: suggestions on how to reach nirvana and eliminate desire - meditation Both founded in India, Reincarnation = bad, want to be one with the universe and to stop reincarnating Nirvana (Buddhism) = Moksha (Hinduism), karma, stuff is bad = material things, meditation is good

6 We created a web to show our answers to the Religion EQ in class. Here are some ideas we discussed typed out: Religion EQ: What is the role of religion in ancient civilizations, and how does religions still impact today s world? - To explain nature (ex. Creation myths, gods of nature like Re the sun god in Egypt) - To answer big questions (ex. Buddhism tries to answer What causes suffering?, other religions help us understand What happens when I die? ) - To control people (ex. The pharaoh was considered a god in Egypt = power, weighing of the heart in Egypt would influence your actions to get to the afterlife) - To provide morals and ethics to live by (ex. Ten Commandments) - To provide comfort/safety/sense of community - Influences culture (ex. Each religion has their own holidays and customs that impact the area Christmas has permeated American and other cultures) - Causes conflict (ex. Muslim stereotypes and terrorism, religious war in places like Israel)

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