People and Ideas on the Move. Explain the Dynasty Cycle and Mandate of Heaven.

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1 People and Ideas on the Move Explain the Dynasty Cycle and Mandate of Heaven.

2 Objectives Students will be able to describe the spread of Indo- Europeans Aryan Invasion Hittite Empire Terms: Caste, Vedas, and Indo-European.

3 People and Ideas on the Move C H B.C B.C.

4 Migratory Civilizations in E. Europe/ W. Asia Indo- Europeans Hittites Aryans

5 Indo-Europeans Indo refers to the Indian Subcontinent Europe in the West India in the East Where did the Indo-Europeans Come from? Nomadic peoples who came from the steppes (dry grasslands) between the Caucasus mountains PG. 62

6 Indo-European Language (p.61)

7 Which Languages are in the Indo-European family of Languages?

8 Hittites (2000 BCE) Hittites settle Anatolia (modern day Turkey) Geography: high, rocky plateau, rich in timber, minerals

9 Hittites (2000 B.C B.C.) Occupied Babylon, fought with Egypt over N. Syria Superior war technology Chariot (center wheel, Iron construction) Iron weapons (iron ore and charcoal readily available in mountains) Invasions from North led to decline Write: What land did Hittites want? What was their advantage over Egypt?

10 Aryans (1500 B.C. 250 B.C.) Pastoral People Occupy modern day Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India

11 Aryans (1500 B.C. 250 B.C.) Little archeological (earthen) record Kept records using: Vedas Sacred literature (prayers, magical spells, instructions for performing rituals) Periodic lack/ loss of a writing system What is Vedas?

12 Activity

13 Aryan Civilization Cont. Development of a Caste System What is a Caste System? Aryan s portray a feeling of superiority over other races Aryan (nobles) vs. Dasas (Indian peoples known as slaves) Aryan Caste system is composed of multiple social classes: Brahmins (priests) Kshatriyas (Warriors) (Shatria) (Vaishyas) Peasants or Traders (Vysha) Shudras (non-aryan laborers or craftspeople) (shoedra) Caste is for life, determined work, marriage, eating arrangements

14 Caste System Cont. (Brahmins) Priests Warriors Traders (Shudras) Laborers Examine textbook on p. 64 (The Aryan Caste System)

15 Why do you feel they associate these individual Castes with the specific parts of the body?

16 Aryan Civilizations Cont. Kingdoms Arise 1000 B.C. minor kings desire to have territorial kingdoms Kingdom of Magadha arises as a result of the struggle for land and power (one major kingdom) Violence and confusion lead to new religions in India Development of Hinduism and Buddhism

17 Hinduism and Buddhism Develop In pairs, examine p in textbook. Create a Venn Diagram comparing: Beliefs Practices of Buddhism and Hinduism

18 Hinduism and Buddhism Develop Intermingling of Aryans and Non-Aryans leads to development of Hinduism As Hindu teachers attempt to explain Vedic hymns, their comments are written down as Upanishads These Upanishads later become the basis for the Hindu faith Hinduism ( BC) No single founder No single set of ideas See religion as a way to liberate the soul from the illusions, disappointments, and mistakes of everyday existence

19 Hinduism Believe that persons can achieve moksha, a state of perfect understanding of all things A person must understand the relationship between the atman (soul of a living being) and Brahman (world soul responsible for uniting all atmans) to achieve perfect understanding or moksha This understanding comes through a process of reincarnation, in which an individual soul or spirit is born again Karma (the following of good or bad deeds from one reincarnation to another) Determine life status, opportunity, ect.

20 Hinduism 3 Gods of Hinduism Brahma: Creator Shiva: Destroyer Vishnu: Protector

21 Hinduism Worship of a god is not mandatory Free to choose from three paths to achieving moksha Path of right thinking, Path of right action, Path of religious devotion Good Karma results in good fortune, bad karma results bad

22 Hinduism Hinduism and the caste structure developed during the Aryan time period still dominate individual life As a result, Hindus are coerced into looking to religion for guidance in order to better their chances in future lives

23 Jainism Mahavira (founder, BC): Everything has a soul and so should not be harmed Jians preach tolerance of all religions Few efforts convert followers

24 Founding of Buddhism Buddhism is founded by Siddhartha Gautama ( BC) Isolated inside his father s palace until the age of 29 due to his father s hopes of him becoming a world leader Ventured outside four times at the age of 29 1 st saw an old man 2 nd saw a sick man 3 rd saw a corpse 4 th saw a holy man at peace

25 Buddhism Interpreted these experiences as every living thing experiences these misfortunes, but only a religious life can provide refuge and peace Siddhartha wandered the forests of India for 6 years searching for Enlightenment, or wisdom After 49 days of meditation, he understood the misfortunes and suffering in the world This Enlightenment gave him the title of the Enlightened One, or Buddha

26 Buddhism 1 st sermon was preached to five companions Laid out the four main ideas that he had come to understand Four Noble Truths 1. Life is filled with suffering and sorrow 2. The cause of all suffering is people s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world 3. The way to end all suffering is to end all desires 4. The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way between desires and self-denial

27 Buddhism To achieve enlightenment or Nirvana, Buddha stated the need to follow the Eightfold Path: Right Views Right Resolve Right Speech Right Conduct Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration Anyone capable of reaching Nirvana

28 Buddhism Rejected many gods of Hinduism Rejected the caste system Both believe in a perfect state of understanding, a break from the chain of reincarnations

29 Buddhism So what exactly happens when one achieves Nirvana? "Nirvana" is simply "understanding" Understanding about the very nature of your being. When you die with Nirvana, you get absorbed into the cosmic consiousness - the very consciousness that is part of the creation. If you chose to come back to further the creation process, you can (a la Buddhism)..if not, you do what the stars and planets do at a level inconceivable to humans... Humanity is just the beginning of an ever evolutionary process... enjoy the process...

30 Buddhism and Society (concluding facts) Many followers were laborers or craftspeople Buddha reluctantly admitted women Monks and nuns took vows of poverty, nonviolence, and celibacy Teachings of Buddha are documented in the Jatakas Buddhism spread throughout Asia and Indonesia

31 Buddha Gestures DHAMMACAKKA is the first sermon of Lord Buddha. In this mudra hands are raised in front of chest, while clinching the thumb and forefingers of both hands.

32 Buddha Gestures ABHAYAMUDRA means fearlessness and kindness. In this mudra, right hand is raised to level of shoulder while palm facing opposite.

33 Buddha Gestures Third position of mudra is called Right Hand BUMISPARA. Bumispara is made of two words Bumi and spara, Bumi means earth and spara means indicating towards. In this mudra right hand is extended towards the earth god, palm facing towards self and the fingers reaching below knee.

34 Buddha Gestures VARADA means generosity. In this position, hand is extended towards the earth while palm is kept open and outward. This position of Buddha s statue shows generosity.

35 Buddha Gestures VITARKA is next position of the statues, which means teaching. Vitarka position is a method of teaching to attain Lord Buddha. In this mudra the hand is raised while thumb is touching forefinger

36 Buddha Gestures Dhyana is a position of meditation, where legs are placed crossed above one another and the hands are place quietly into lap of legs. The word Dhyana is derived from pali language jhana means meditation.

37 Buddha Gestures Last position of Buddha s statue is known as ANJALI means resepect & greeting In this mudra, both the hands are raised in front the heart while palms touching each other. Anjali mudra is the Buddha s way of respecting and welcoming.

38 Origins of Judaism Hebrews settled in Canaan Modern day: Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Egypt The land God had promised to the Hebrew people

39 Origins of Judaism Early knowledge of Judaism comes from the Torah Torah: first five (5) books of the Hebrew Bible Abraham is chosen by God to be the father of the Hebrew people Moves his people to Canaan (1800 B.C.) Hebrews are Monotheists: God = Yahweh Covenant between Yahweh and Abraham protects Hebrews

40 Exodus Famine causes Hebrews to migrate to Egypt from Canaan = forced into slavery Exodus ( B.C.): Hebrews fled Egypt Remembered during Passover Instructed to leave blood of a spring lamb Festival of the unleavened bread Moses led Hebrews out of slavery

41 New Covenant Ten Commandments Spoken to Moses on Mount Sinai (2 stone tablets) Basis for civil and religious law in Judaism Formed a covenant between God and the Hebrew people

42 Desert Wandering Moses dies after 40 years of wandering Hebrews decide to return to Canaan Develop civilization (city-dwellers) 12 tribes (self-governing)

43 Formation of Israel Tribes die out due to lack of structure and support Tribe of Judah remains called Jews (Judaism) Kingdom of Israel Saul = drove out Philistines David = son-in-law established Jerusalem as capital, united the tribes, founded a dynasty Solomon = son of David Built trade empire, beautified city (temple contain tablets)

44 Decline of Israel Kingdom divides in two Israel Judah Both succumb to Assyrian attack Babylonians destroy Solomon s temple (Jerusalem)(586 B.C.) Persians conquer Babylon and allow 40,000 exiles to return to Jerusalem

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