Harappa and Mohenjo Daro

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1 4 ancient India and China.notebook Ancient India Geographically a subcontinent protected by the Himilayas and Hindu Kush Mtns. watered by the Indus and Ganges (holy) rivers secluded until the Aryan Invasion of the Dasas (dark skinned) Harappa and Mohenjo Daro ( ) 2600 populations between 35,000 40,000 public sewers running water city planning with zoning districts trade, residential, gov.t, public use traded with Mesopotamia earthquake? 1500bc destroyed the civilizations The Aryan Invasion came from the Aral sea through the Hindu Kush conquered the Ganges and the dasas there ruled by heavenly authority of the Brahmins brought a new written language Sanskrit Vedas book of Hinduism, literally "knowledge", gave authority Vedic India Caste System, had 5 varnas Brahmins priests Kshatriyas warriors Vaisyas commoners, merchants, farmers Sudras peasants, vast majority of the population Untouchables not even considered human Aug 6 7:44 PM 1

2 4 ancient India and China.notebook Vedic India and Hinduism Based off of the Vedas (book of knowledge) The laws of Manu justified the beliefs Bhagavad Gita Reincarnation leaving behind your worn out body until your atman can merge with Brahman Karma everything you do has an effect Samsara reincarnation based on your Karma Dharma the effect you have on others, divine law, do your duty Atman your soul Moksha purest form of karma Nirvana Soma hallucinogen for revelation of divine rules yoga training to achieve union with Brahman Brahmins sacrificed to the gods for victory, children, harvests, prosperity many complicated rituals Vedic Gods Indra Warrior god, thunder and lightning Siva Destroyer Vishnu Preserver Ganesh Remover of Obstacles Brahman Creator Aug 6 7:39 PM 2

3 Late Vedic Monotheism Brahmin the only god All other gods were manifestations of Brahmin Began to reject old rituals and Magic Focus more on meditation Aug 6 7:52 PM 3

4 The Basis of World Religions India people begin putting more of a personal touch into their religions Upanishads teach this way need for more personal gods, often by trade Brahma the creator all the world is a part of Brahma Shiva/Vishnu/Veruna/etc... belief in reincarnation dharma moral duty to be fulfilled karma moral consequences Two Major Breaks from Hinduism Mahavira at age 30 rejects the warrior class begins teaching Jainism everything has a soul (rocks, trees, animals...) rejects violence, self denial, jina conquerer vegetarians feared hurting life Siddhartha Gautama ( bc) lived a sheltered life of privlege unitl 29 looked outside the walls of his home and saw poverty, disease, death wanted to discover why these things existed gave up his wealth and possesions became the Buddha enlightened one 4 noble truths Life has pain and suffering desire leads to pain and suffering nirvana is salvation eightfold path undertanding decision to become free right conduct right speech right livelyhood right effort mindfulness meditation Buddha rejected the Vedic Indian caste system > anti Brahmins could not support a social class that allowed such pain Politically Darius is taken over by Alexander the Great use of war elephants and flaming arrows 322bc Chandragupta learned from Alex and built the first Indian Empire Asoka used missionaries to spread Buddhism Grows and flourishes over the next 800 years Math and Science abound discovery of pi Role of women was very limitied Oct 18 7:34 AM 4

5 Mauryan Empire began around 324 bc founded by Chandragupta Maurya learned from the retreating Alexander the Great drove out all foreign threats divided his empire into manageable districts Asoka helped India prosper by brokering trade from East to West converted to Buddhism and treated the people fairly India began to break up again after his death Jul 15 3:00 PM 5

6 The Golden Age of China Begins around 2852 BCE Always follows the Mandate of Heaven Rulers stay as long as the heavens permit ended by loss of favor of the gods Invasion Floods Famine Disease Any Natural Disaster Xia Dynasty tame the Yellow river allow for civilization food, trade, water, agriculture runs for 17 generations Shang Dynasty (28 generations) Oracle bones rule from BCE massive bronze statues chariots human sacrifices huge tombs Lady Fu Hao burried with bronzes warriors, riches, 16 people Zhou (Chow) Dyanasty Slowly take over Massive armies of foot soldiers Iron weapons annexed territories Births of Confucianism and Daoism Ch'in (Qin) Take the Mandate of Heaven in 213 Burning of the Books Revival of Confucianism Empress Wu civil service exam The Yellow River (Huang He) and The Yangtze River Aug 6 7:54 PM 6

7 China Golden Age of China Xia dynasty 17 generations, Shang dynasty 28 generations Held the Mandate of Heaven 722bc China consisted of 200 individual states worked for diplomacy and failed bc the Warring States Period iron and steel weapons, massive foot soldiers, annexation Qin state wins very creative period followed war and destruction one hundred schools period many philosophies Confucianism Kongfuzi b. 551 bc humble beginnings wanted a life of gov.t service saw the breakdown of family life in China as the downfall loss of virtue, must be changed call for respect of culture, principles of order and peace wrote THE ANALECTS "to gather up" very conservative respect for family, elders, past apply this to politics and order will return accept your role in society rulers rule, warriors fight, fathers raise sons... always act virtuously (especially rulers) His Ideas were not popular (rulers were too powerhungry) at first Daoism Laozi wrote a book called the Dao De Jing (Tao Tejing) against the social/moral conformist teachings of Confucius daoism could not be defined, just experienced follow the wu wei act by not acting, do by not doing, taste the tasteless... do what comes naturally to you the universe procedes on its own yin (female, weak, soft) yang (male, strong, hard) find the balance and you will find peace Legalism enforce laws and peace will follow rule by force people by nature and selfish and untrustowrthy put the king first in all acts official rule of Qin Dynasty Oct 18 10:57 AM 7

8 4 ancient India and China.notebook The Qin Dynasty 221 BC unified China after the Warring States Period only lasted 15 years and two generations achievements standard of weights and measurements military districts one tax one coinage system public works roads, bridges, the Great Wall of China (2,000mi) not so good ruled as autocracy killed off political rivals Burning of the Books and 460 Intellectuals destroyed all legalist and confucist documents harsh rule had to rat out your own family reign of fear Qin Shi Huang di considered the first true emperor burried with terracotta warriors huge map of China with Rivers of Mercury The Han Dynasty take over mandate of heaven in 202 BC larger than Rome at the time Liu Bang and several advisors held huge sway Strong Confucian influence Wudi established the Civil Service Exam High exam scores and family ties > Mandarin empire was too vast, Daoists revolt overthrow Han in 220 AD family was a central part of life age=wisdom, father ruled all, no gender equality science was very advanced, shipping, astronomy, accupuncture Buddhism enters China Oct 18 11:12 AM 8

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