APWH. Physical Geo. & Climate: India 9/11/2014. Chapter 3 Notes

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1 APWH Chapter 3 Notes Physical Geo. & Climate: India Deccan Plateau & Hindu Kush Major bodies of water: Indus and Ganges, Indian Ocean, etc. Mountain Ranges: Himalayas, Ghats, etc. Desert: Thar Monsoons: two a year Southern India & Ceylon (Sri Lanka today) 1

2 Early Indian History Harappan civilization, a huge complex of cities and villages, developed rapidly during the 3rd millennium B.C.E. (3000 BCE) within the Indus river system. The two principal cities were Harappa, in the north, and Mohenjo-Daro, in the south. (similar to Egyptian culture) Can not read their language Do not know why they collapsed Picture of Harappan City 2

3 Picture of Harappan Seals Invasion of the Aryans Sometime after 2000 BCE Aryans move into area of northern India, language: Sanskrit Known as Vedic Period Culture c BCE to c. 500 BCE Aryans had metal and war chariots, thus is a warrior culture, Original Aryan culture had 3 groups: warriors, priests and commoners, they absorbed what was left of Harappan culture Leads to Caste system and Hinduism Caste System Varnas (colors)--different classes: Sub-castes called jatis Priests (Brahmins) Warriors (Kshatriyas) Merchants (Vaisyas) Peasants/Farmers (Sudras) Untouchables- Made up from conquered groups 3

4 Rig-Veda Mahabharata Ramayana Upanishads The Epics or Vedas Bhagavad Gita (part of the Mahabharata) The Mauryan Dynasty End of Vedic period around 500 BCE Rise of regional states, eventually one dominates, also reaction to invasion of Alexander the Great Chandragupta (322 BCE- 298 BCE) Grandson rules- Ashoka (269 BCE- 232 BCE), extends empire, also adopts Buddhism Empires declines after Ashoka s death, breaks up with civil war Map of Mauryan Empire 4

5 Stupa built during time of Ashoka- this one is located at Sanchi Rise of the Guptas Another outside groups comes in: Kushans but only last until 200 CE, Kushans do adopt Buddhism which they help to introduce to to China Wealthy landlord family develops into regional power, known as the Guptas (located on eastern Ganges plain) Weaker than earlier empire, not as large Map of Gupta Empire 5

6 Gupta Empire Considered a Golden Age Extensive trade with SE Asia including cotton (which was native to India) Little contact with China- WHY? Empire falls around 550 CE due to outside invaders India reverts to regional kingdoms One last attempt to unite India: Reign of Harsha ( ) who united most of northern India but short-lived. Harsha s Empire Hinduism Many gods but three major deities: Vishnu, Shiva & Brahma- belief in oneness of universe All life sacred, leads to Hindus being vegetarians plus cows have special significance Reincarnation: goal to achieve moksha, free of cycle of life and death (rebirth), union with universe Dharma: how you live your life, applied to following caste rules Karma: consequences of one s actions 6

7 Hinduism (cont.) World filled with good & evil No fixed rituals or established hierarchy, there are priests, but no formal clergy (used to have to be a Brahmin to be a priest) Human nature is basically good, thus achieving material well being and importance of family and love/sex is seen as good Hinduism spreads out of India and into SE Asia Buddhism Reaction to Hinduism Shares many beliefs with Hinduism such as dharma, karma, etc. Role of Siddartha aka Gautama Buddha, lived between c. 563 BCE to 480 BCE Goal to achieve nirvana, a release from the cycles of life and rebirth The Four Noble Truths Eight Fold Path Buddhism (Cont.) After death of Buddha, Buddhism starts to spread in India, helped by Ashoka After Ashoka, Buddhism splits into two: Theravada & Mayayana Role of the Bodhisattvas Stress on mediatation and other techniques Spreads to both SE Asia and East Asia Japanese version known as Zen 7

8 Spread of Buddhism How different? India and China How alike? Major World Religions Today 8

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