Ancient India and China

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1 Ancient India and China

2 The Subcontinent Huge peninsula Pushes out into the Indian Ocean India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka

3 Himalaya Hindu Kush Eastern and Western Ghats Mountains

4 Rivers Ganges Indus Brahmaputra

5 Regions Indo-Gangetic Plain; aka the Northern Plain Deccan Plateau Coastal Plains

6 Monsoons Seasonal wind that dominates the climate of South Asia Flooding in Calcutta (NYT 7/6/07) Flooding on the Brahmaputra

7 Indus River Valley Civilization BC Well organized government Cities are Mohenjo- Daro and Harappa Grid; streets, houses plumbing, sewers, warehouses Farming; trading; polytheistic

8 Mohenjo-Daro

9 Street Scenes

10 Arrival of the Aryans 1500 BC Aryans migrate into the valley No cities, no physical remains; Iron weapons and tools Nomads who turn to farming Social groups ranked by occupation

11 Aryan Social Classes Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudras

12 BC; What we know of the Aryans comes from this time Vedas; Hymns; Chants; Religious Rituals; Sanskrit Polytheistic The Mahabharata and the Ramayana The Vedic Age

13 No single founder, combination of Aryan and Indus Valley beliefs No single sacred text; Vedas Brahman; single spiritual force Polytheistic; Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva Hinduism

14 What You Need to Know Atman-universal self Moksha-union with Brahman Reincarnation-rebirth Karma-what goes around comes around Dharma-religious or moral duty Ahimsa-non-violence

15 Social organization Rigid Born, live, and die in it Rules to ensure social purity Stable social order Grown to include thousands of subcastes Outlawed recently Caste

16 Buddhism Siddhartha (563 BC) Hindu The birth of the Buddha Enlightened One The Four Noble Truths The Eightfold Path Nirvana

17 The Four Noble Truths All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow The cause of suffering is desire, aka non-virtue You must crush desire Follow the Eightfold Path

18 Basic Beliefs Hinduism Many gods Brahman Caste Priests Karma Dharma Reincarnation Buddhism No gods Nirvana No caste No priests Karma Dharma Reincarnation

19 Maurya Empire BC Chandragupta unifies northern India Taxes; roads; stateowned factories Secret police

20 The Maurya Empire

21 Ashoka 268 BC Greatest, most beloved of all rulers Converts to Buddhism; rejects violence; rules by moral example Edicts Sends missionaries

22 Ashoka s Empire

23 Ashoka s Law Code Edicts scattered in over thirty places in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan Ten rock edicts on pillars (stupas) feet tall Sanskrit; Buddhist principles dominate his laws

24 The Gupta Empire Golden Age; AD Peace and prosperity Math; medicine, physics; philosophy Arabic numerals and the decimal system Decline due to weak rulers, civil war, invaders

25 The Gupta Empire

26 Rise of Civilization in China Center of the Earth Himalayas; Gobi Desert; Rainforest; Pacific all block movement Trade with the Middle East and India Invaders All are absorbed into Chinese civilization

27 Bronze Age Dynasties Shang; BC; clan government; social classes Zhou; BC; Mandate of Heaven to justify taking control Zhou establish feudalism; money economy; population growth; expansion of empire

28 Mandate of Heaven

29 Belief Systems Confucius; BC; Siddhartha and Socrates Social order and harmony-not interested in spirituality; Analects Relationships; Superior/inferior Duties, responsibilities; filial piety; implied contract

30 Lao-zi Not interested in order of human affairs Live in harmony with nature Dao- the way of the universe Society is unnatural; government is cause of problems Daoism

31 System of Writing Begins about 4000 years ago Oracle bones Lots and lots of characters; both pictographs and ideographs Calligraphy

32 221 BC Zheng becomes Shi Huangdi the First Emperor Unifies China under the Qin Based on Legalism Burns books to quiet dissent; tortures, kills, enslaves enemies Abolishes feudalism Great Wall Strong Rulers

33 The Great Wall of China

34 More of the Great Wall

35 202 BC-220 AD Expansionist; Go into Manchuria, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet Silk Road; 4000 miles; network of trade routes from China to India to the Middle East Civil Service; wealthy; male Han Dynasty

36 By AD 100 missionaries and merchants had brought the religion to China Appealing because it offers an escape from suffering By 400 AD it had spread throughout China Buddhism

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