Introduction. World Religions Unit

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1 Introduction World Religions Unit

2 Why Study Religions? Religion plays a key role in our world today Religion is a major component of the human experience Knowledge of people s religions helps us understand culture, peoples, & communities Studying religion diminishes prejudices & clears up misconceptions Helps us grow in and develop our own set of beliefs

3 Religions of Study Islam Judaism Christianity Hinduism Buddhism

4 What will we learn? History of each religion Major beliefs Form of worship Sacred texts Location of religions

5 What is Bias? With your learning partners Write a definition of Bias Describe how you can be biased about people that practice different religions I will call on pairs to discuss their answers

6 Example Maybe I think that all people who drive blue cars are really bad drivers. How is this biased? BIG PICTURE QUESTION How does bias relate to religions?

7 Buddhism Major Religions Unit

8 History & Establishment Siddhartha Gautama Born in India around 563 BC Was a prince who felt something was missing in his life Dissatisfied with Hinduism Was determined to find answers about life Spent years meditating & found enlightenment under a tree & became Buddha Traveled & taught people his ideas

9 Beliefs The 4 Noble Truths Suffering & unhappiness are part of human life Suffering comes from our desires for pleasure People can overcome their desires by reaching Nirvana People can overcome ignorance by following the Eightfold path

10 Beliefs The Eightfold Path Right Thought Right Intent Right Speech Right Action Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration

11 Sacred Texts Tripitaka is a collection of Buddhist teachings recognized b Theravada Buddhists Mahayana Sutras are Buddhist teachings recognized by Mahayana Buddhists Tibetan Book of the Dead describes the stages of death from the Tibetan point of view

12 Major Location Buddhism is practiced in many areas around the world India Asia

13 Important Vocabulary Buddhism: Religion based on the teachings of Buddha that developed in India Nirvana: In Buddhism, a state of perfect peace Fasting: Going without food for a period of time Meditation: A deep continued thought that focuses the mind on spiritual ideas Missionaries: Someone who works to spread religion

14 Christianity Major Religions Unit

15 Origins Jesus of Nazareth Jews predicted a leader would be born to restore Israel Many believed Jesus was the Messiah Jesus s life & teachings formed the basis of Christianity

16 History & Establishment According to the Bible Jesus was born in Bethlehem at the end of the first century BC Jesus s mother Mary was married to Joseph Christians believe that God is Jesus s Father Jesus began to travel and teach the word of God known as the New Testament

17 History & Establishment Jesus drew many followers &challenged the authority leaders Jesus was arrested around AD 30 & crucified Christians believe Jesus returned from the dead as the Resurrection After spending 40 days with his disciples, Jesus rose up into heaven

18 Beliefs There is only one God Jesus is the son of God Jesus performed miracles Jesus rose from the dead Ten Commandments New Testament

19 Sacred Texts The teachings of Jesus Christ were recorded in the Bible The New Testament

20 Major Location Christianity is practiced in many areas around the world Predominantly in the Western World

21 Important Vocabulary Messiah: In Judaism, a new leader that would appear among the Jews and restore the greatness of Israel Christianity: A religion based on the teachings of Jesus Bible: The holy book of Christianity Resurrection: Jesus s rise from the dead Disciples: Followers

22 Hinduism Major Religions Unit

23 History & Establishment No on person founded Hinduism It developed slowly over a long period of time out of centuries of older traditions Hinduism has no specific movement of origin Aryans migrated to India in the 2000 BC Brought rituals to India, which became part of Hinduism

24 History & Establishment Traces its roots to older traditions such as Vedic beliefs and Brahmanism Modern-day religion is very complex Hinduism refers to the philosophical and religious traditions native to India

25 Caste System Brahmins: Priests Kshatriyas: Rulers & warriors Vaisyas: Farmers, craftspeople, & traders Sudras: Laborers & non-aryans

26 Beliefs Brahman is the divine force some Hindus believe is greater than the other gods There are many deities that are different faces of the supreme force Dharma is the law, obligation, & duty of Hindus Karma is the belief that the good & evil done in a past life determines the person s next life Samsara is the belief of a continuous cycle or birth, death, & rebirth

27 Sacred Texts Vedic Texts Describes Aryan religious rituals Secret rituals that only certain people can perform Reflections on the Vedas by religious students & teachers

28 Major Location Hinduism is practiced throughout the world India Asia United States Europe

29 Important Vocabulary Caste System: Class or group in Hindu society Reincarnation: Belief that a person s soul is reborn into a new body after death Hinduism: A religion that developed in India over many centuries Vedas: Collection of ancient writings views as sacred by many Hindus Brahmanism: Ancient ritual traditions grown out of older Vedic religious beliefs & helped lead to Hinduism Dharma: Belief that a person has a duty or obligation to live an honorable life Karma: Belief that good or evil done in a past life will determine a person s next life

30 Islam Major Religions Unit

31 History & Establishment Muhammad Born in Mecca around 570 Married a wealthy woman Became disenchanted because the wealthy were not helping the poor Meditated in a local cave

32 History & Establishment Muhammad becomes a prophet He meditated in a cave & an angel appeared to him and said: Recite in the name of your Lord who created, created man from clots of blood! Recite! Your lord is Most Bountiful One, Who by the pen taught man what he did not know (Quran 96: 1-3) Muhammad began teaching others about the messages he heard These messages are the basis of Islam

33 Beliefs The 5 Pillars of Islam: This first pillar of Islam is a statement of faith The second pillar of Islam is daily prayer The third pillar of Islam is a yearly donation to charity The fourth pillar of Islam is fasting The fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca

34 Sacred Texts During Muhammad s life his followers memorized his messages, words, and deeds After his death, the collected his writings and wrote them down in the form of a book This book is the Islamic sacred text called the Quran

35 Major Location Islam is practiced in many areas around the world Middle East Africa Asia China Russia United States There are over 1 billion followers of Islam

36 Important Vocabulary Mecca: The most sacred city of Islam Islam: A religion based on the messages that Muhammad is believed to have received from God. Muslims: A follower of Islam Quran: The holy book of Islam Mosque: A building for Muslim prayer Allah: God of Islam

37 Judaism Major Religions Unit

38 History & Establishment Between 2000 & 1500 BC Hebrews appeared in Southwest Asia The work of archeologists and accounts written by Hebrew scribes tell the history These accounts have become the Hebrew Bible

39 Origins of Judaism The Bible traces the Hebrews back to Abraham God told Abraham to leave Mesopotamia and move to Canaan Abraham s descendants moved to Egypt (Hebrews) In Egypt the Hebrews became the slaves of the Pharaoh

40 Origins of Judaism In the 1200s BC God told Moses lead the Hebrews out of Egypt God sent the Ten Plagues of Egypt The pharaoh freed the Hebrews Moses led the people out of Egypt (Exodus) While Moses was on a mountain God gave him stone tablets to write the code of laws Ten Commandments

41 Beliefs Belief in one God Monotheism Belief in Justice & Righteousness God considers all people equal Caring for less fortunate is important Belief in Law God gave Jews moral laws to follow Ten Commandments

42 Sacred Texts The ancient Jews recorded most of their laws into five books called the Torah The Hebrew Bible is 11 books of poetry, songs, stories, lessons, & history The Talmud is a set of commentaries & lessons for everyday life

43 Major Location Judaism is practiced in many areas around the world Israel North America South America Europe Asia

44 Important Vocabulary Judaism: Religion of the Hebrews practiced by Jews today Exodus: Journey in which Moses led his people out of Egypt Monotheism: The belief in only one God Torah: Most sacred text of Judaism Rabbis: A Jewish religious leader & teacher

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