1. Which culture is credited with the development of gunpowder, the abacus, and the compass? A) Chinese B) Persian C) Indian D) Japanese 2.

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1 1. Which culture is credited with the development of gunpowder, the abacus, and the compass? A) Chinese B) Persian C) Indian D) Japanese 2. Which geographic factor directly influenced the early interactions between China and Korea? A) location B) monsoons C) arid climate D) tropical savannas 3. A major reason for Zheng He s voyages during the 15th century was to A) promote trade and collect tribute B) establish colonies in Africa and India C) seal off China s borders from foreign influence D) prove the world was round 4. Confucianism had a strong impact on the development of China mainly because this philosophy A) established a basic structure for military rule B) provided a basis for social order C) contained the framework for a communist government D) stressed the importance of the individual 5. Which source of information is considered a primary source? A) travel diary of Ibn Battuta B) modern novel about the Golden Age of Islam C) textbook on the history of North Africa D) dictionary of English words adapted from Arabic 6. A similarity between Bantu migrations in Africa and migrations of the ancient Aryans into South Asia is that both moved A) across the Atlantic Ocean B) from rural lands to urban areas C) in search of additional food sources D) for religious freedom 7. Which factor most influenced a person s social position in early Indian societies? A) education B) birth C) geographic location D) individual achievement

2 8. Base your answer to the following question on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies. The technology of papermaking traveled from China to Baghdad along the A) Saharan caravan trails B) Trans-Siberian Railway C) Silk Roads D) Suez Canal 9. Before the use of the Silk Road, how did geography affect early China? A) The mountains and deserts in western and southwestern China slowed the exchange of ideas. B) The northwestern region provided many fertile areas suitable for farming. C) The three major river systems provided barriers against invasion. D) The lack of deep-water ports on the eastern coast prevented China from developing trade with other nations. 10. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? I. A. Maurya B. Gupta C. Delhi sultanate A) Empires of India B) Latin American Civilizations C) Empires of the Fertile Crescent D) Dynasties of China 11. Which quotation from the teachings of Confucius is most similar to the Golden Rule from Judeo-Christian teaching? A) If a ruler is upright, all will go well without orders. B) By nature, men are pretty much alike. It is learning and practice that set them apart. C) While a father or mother is alive, a son should not travel far. D) Do not do to others what you do not wish for yourself. 12. The terms Brahma, dharma, and moksha are most closely associated with which religion? A) Judaism B) Islam C) Hinduism D) animism 13. Traditional Chinese values emphasized that the best society was one in which people A) received equal treatment B) tried to improve their status in life C) carried out their assigned tasks and duties D) shared political power with the emperor

3 14. Believers of Hinduism are expected to A) fulfill their dharma for a favorable reincarnation B) complete a pilgrimage to Mecca C) obey the Ten Commandments D) follow the Eightfold Path to achieve enlightenment 15. The Ganges River is sacred to people practicing Hinduism. Shinto shrines are usually located near mountains or lakes. The Jordan River is a site of many Christian baptisms. Which conclusion is most valid based on these statements related to belief systems? A) The Middle East was the birthplace of these belief systems. B) Water plays an important role in these belief systems. C) Pilgrimages to mountainous regions are encouraged by these belief systems. D) Understanding nature is a requirement of these belief systems Base your answers to questions 16 and 17 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of social studies. 16. Which religion or belief system is most closely associated with the social class system illustrated in the diagram? A) Hinduism B) Daoism C) Catholicism D) animism 17. Which concept is illustrated in the diagram? A) manorialism B) apartheid C) caste D) encomienda 18. Which belief is shared by Hindus and Buddhists? A) Everyone should have the same social status. B) People should pray five times a day. C) The soul can be reincarnated. D) Material wealth is a sign of the blessing of the gods. 19. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below and on your knowledge of social studies. The diagram represents the rigid social class system of A) colonial Latin America B) traditional India C) feudal Japan D) dynastic China 20. In traditional India, the caste system and the Hindu beliefs in karma and dharma most directly resulted in A) the establishment of a set of rules for each individual in the society B) the rapid industrialization of the economy C) a strong emphasis on the acquisition of wealth D) a strong belief in the importance of education 21. Which statement was true of the caste system in traditional India? A) Members of different castes often intermarried. B) Caste membership determined a person's occupation. C) The highest caste was composed of untouchables. D) The caste system had little effect on daily village life.

4 22. The caste system influenced traditional rural Indian society by A) limiting social and economic progress B) promoting political instability C) reducing the power of landowners D) contributing to greater social mobility 23. Which statement about the caste system in present-day India is most accurate? A) Most villages are still inhabited by only one specific caste. B) Although discrimination based on caste is illegal, caste remains an important factor in Indian society. C) The caste system is much stronger in India's urban areas than it is in rural areas. D) The caste system remains an important part of the Muslim religion. 24. In India, the people have resisted changing their attitudes toward the caste system because A) national Muslim leaders have supported the caste system B) the government is unwilling to end the caste system C) continued religious conflict prevents changes in the caste system D) the Hindu beliefs of karma and dharma reinforce the caste system 25. "Your words are wise, Arjuna, but your sorrow is for nothing. The truly wise mourn neither for the living nor for the dead. There never was a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor any of these kings. Nor is there any future in which we shall cease to be..." 27. Base your answer to the following question on on the passage below.... He who, being of weak faculties [abilities], develops the wisdom of the first path with a dull insight is reborn seven times at most; after seven rebirths in states of bliss he will make an end of misery: he who develops it with medium faculties and insight is a roamer; after two or three rebirths he will make an end of misery: he who develops it with keen faculties and insight takes root but once, only one human birth will he pass through and make an end of misery.... Charles W. Eliot, ed., Sacred Writings, Vol II, P.F. Collier Son, 1910 Which belief system is described in this passage? A) Buddhism B) Christianity C) Islam D) Confucianism 28. Which belief is most closely associated with the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)? A) People are born into a specific caste. B) Believers must follow the Ten Commandments. C) Followers must fast during Ramadan. D) People can overcome their desires by following the Eight-Fold Path. This passage best reflects a belief in A) ancestor worship B) the Eightfold Path C) reincarnation D) nirvana 26. Which religion includes the Four Noble Truths, the Eightfold Path, and nirvana? A) Buddhism B) Hinduism C) Judaism D) Christianity

5 29. Base your answer to the following question on the image below. The diagram illustrates the key concepts of which religion? A) Islam B) Christianity C) Hinduism D) Buddhism 30. Which values are most closely associated with the fundamental principles of Buddhism? A) competition and financial success B) maintaining the caste system and providing education for all people C) practicing nonviolence and giving up worldly desires D) self-determination and democracy Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the speakers' statements below and on your knowledge of social studies. Speaker A: "The eightfold noble path and four noble truths as expressed by Siddhartha Gautama are the foundations of our faith." Speaker B: "There is one God and his name is Allah and his truth has been revealed to us through his prophet Mohammed." Speaker C: "The Ten Commandments and the teachings of the Gospels guide us in our quest for a fulfilling spiritual life." Speaker D: "To achieve union with atman, we must pass through many births and acquire good karma by being obedient to moral laws and societal regulations." 31. Which speaker expresses a belief in reincarnation? A) A B) B C) C D) D 32. Which speaker is most likely a Buddhist? A) A B) B C) C D) D

6 33. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below and on your knowledge of social studies. 35. Base your answer to the following question on the illustrations below and on your knowledge of social studies. Which Chinese philosophy best completes this graphic organizer? A) Maoism B) Daoism C) legalism D) Confucianism 34. Which belief is most closely associated with the philosophy of Confucianism? A) nirvana B) reincarnation C) prayer D) filial piety The illustration shows the relationship between individuals in a society according to the ideas of A) Confucius B) Moses C) Mohammad D) Siddhartha Gautama 36. The five relationships taught by Confucius encouraged people to A) improve their position in life B) maintain social and political order C) respect and worship nature D) serve the needs of religious leaders 37. In China, Confucianism emphasized the idea that A) equality should exist between all members of society B) salvation could be attained by prayer, meditation, and good deeds C) individual goals should be placed ahead of the needs of the group D) harmony could be achieved by the proper behavior of each member of a family or society

7 38. According to Confucius, which factor linked the three groups represented by the chain shown in the illustration below? A) the need for education B) legalistic principles C) the Four Noble Truths D) filial piety 39. The philosophy of Confucius stresses the importance of A) respect for authority B) religious beliefs C) a classless society D) owning land

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