Be able to locate the following on a map of the ancient world:

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1 Be able to locate the following on a map of the ancient world: Persian Gulf Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Indus River Tigris River Euphrates River India Huang He River Nile River Fertile Crescent Arabian Peninsula Eastern Ghats Western Ghats Himalaya Mountains Bay of Bengal Egypt Mesopotamia

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4 Civilization: 1. What is the significance of Neolithic Era? Agricultural Revolution occurred. * Humans went from food gatherers to food producers. This allowed people to settle in one place and form communities *Eventually these communities developed the characteristics of civilization. They developed governments, started inventing things, and populations grew. *Eventually there would be a surplus of food and specialization of labor.

5 1.The FOUR Cradles of Civilization a.what are they & why are they located where they are? Nile River- Egypt Tigris and Euphrates Mesopotamia Huang He River China Indus River India They settled near rivers because the rivers flooded and provided good soil for growing crops.

6 1. The FIVE Characteristics of Civilization i.cities and government ii.specialized labor - iii.advanced technology iv.calendar so they could keep track of when the rivers would flood v.written language

7 Ancient Civilizations: Egypt & Mespotamia: 1.Various aspects of society in Mesopotamia (Sumer and Babylonia) a.geography- Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, City-States= city and surrounding land & rules itself, Continent of Asia Modern Countries- Iraq, Syria, Turkey Fertile Crescent lies between the Tigris and Euphrates and goes from the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf. Economy- trade and agriculture Religion- polytheistic, ziggurats, priest-kings government (theocracy), priest-kings powerful agents of the gods social classes- Kings, wealthy merchants, field laborers, slaves written language- cuneiform known for inventing the wheel a.hammurabi s Code- first written law code eye for an eye - based on social class- upper class could pay fines instead of being punished.

8 1. Various aspects of society in Egypt a.geography- narrow strip of fertile land along the Nile River (longest river in the world-flows from south to north) Continent of Africa, Annual Flood = Gift of the Nile Economy- trade and agriculture Religion- polytheistic, Re=Sun god, Osiris=god of the dead, Isis=goddess of women. Belief in after life. government (theocracy)- pharaoh- god/king unlimited power because they were considered gods. Pyramids tombs Theocracy government based on religious authority social classes- Royal Family, Upper Class, Middle Class, Lower Class written language- hieroglyphics

9 a.weighing of the Heart- final judgment in afterlife, Anubis god of mummification b.ka =eternal life force c.book of the Dead book of magic spells, songs and poetry, guide in the afterlife, placed in the coffin d.rosetta Stone- allowed scholars to finally decipher hieroglyphics 1. Hebrews what were their contributions to society? Monotheism, worshipped one God, based on a covenant 2. Phoenicians what were their contributions to society? Phonetic writing system, built ships, many trade centers in the Mediterranean.

10 Hinduism: 1.How & why did Hinduism develop? Clash of two cultures the Indus Valley People and the Indo-Aryans. The Indo-Aryans conquered the Indus Valley People 2.Major Terms/Beliefs Dharma-One s moral duty in life, depends on your caste, moral duty to fulfill obligations of your caste. Karma- every action is punished or rewarded Atman-the spirit that travels from birth to rebirth Reincarnation- The cycle of rebirth Ahimsa-respect for all life, non-violence Moksha- release from the pain and suffering of rebirth Nirvana- the ultimate goal of Hinduism, ends the cycle of rebirth, achieve union with Brahman

11 1.What were the Vedas? Books of Knowledge. These were the songs, prayers and stories of the Indo-Aryans. 2.Brahman (the Absolute) & the 3 manifestations of Brahman (what are the roles of each?) Brahma- The Creator, Shiva- The Destroyer, Vishnu- The Preserver Brahman- one divine essence of unity. One universal spirit can be worshiped through other gods. 1.What is the Hindu s ultimate goal? How & why do they get there? Achieve union with Brahman and Nirvana. End the cycle of rebirth.

12 Buddhism: 1.Major Terms/Beliefs (Dharma, Karma, Reincarnation, Nirvana) 2.What is the story of Siddhartha Gautama how & why did he become the Buddha? Prince isolated in palace until age 29, went out into the world and saw suffering for the first time. Left palace to look for an end to suffering and religious truth. Meditated under a fig tree for 49 days. Then taught his first sermon and became Buddha or the Enlightened One. 3.What are The Four Noble Truths? i.life is filled with suffering and sorrow. ii.the cause of all suffering is desire. iii.to eliminate suffering one must eliminate desire. iv.to eliminate desire one must follow the Eightfold Path.

13 1.What is the Eightfold Path? How is the path related to the Four Noble Truths? Right Understanding Right thought/intention Right Action Right livelihood Right effort Right mindfulness Right concentration *must master one step at a time *the eightfold path helps to eliminate desire. *practice nonviolence and give up desires.

14 1. What is the primary difference between Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism? Theravada view Buddha as a teacher Mayhayana-view Buddha as a savior or divine being 2. What are the MAJOR similarities/differences between Hinduism and Buddhism? Buddhism is different because it rejects many gods, rejects the caste system, and you must follow the Eightfold Path to reach Nirvana. Buddhism is similar to Hinduism because Buddhist believe in reincarnation, nirvana, karma, ahimsa and dharma

15 Ancient India: Geography- Asia subcontinent, developed on the Indus and Ganges Rivers 1. Maurya & Gupta Empires a.chandragupta Maurya who was he & what were his primary contributions to India? He established the Mauryan Empire, great military leader, politically united North India for the first time. a.why did Asoka convert to Buddhism? He felt remorseful for his violent conquest of others. What impact did he have on Buddhism? He helped Buddhism to spread throughout India and other parts of Asia. Sent out missionaries.

16 a.the Golden Age of Gupta (specific achievements) Flourishing of arts and sciences *algebra *Infinity and zero *value of Pi *Arabic numerals 1,2,3,4, etc. *earth is round * identified 7 planets *invented medical instruments, operations, set bones

17 1.The Three Pillars of Indian Life a.the Caste System It was a way of life and connected to religion i.what was the original purpose of the Caste System (think Aryan people)? The Indo-Aryans could control the Indus Valley people ii.what are the 5 different castes? Brahmins Priests Kshatriyas nobles, warriors, royalty Vaisyas merchants and skilled workers Sudras laborers Untouchables outside of caste system

18 i.what is the primary role of the caste system in Indian life? Allows you to follow dharma and eventually reach nirvana. a.what is the primary role of the family in Indian life? Patriarchal society, family teaches children about their caste, family always comes before individual wishes. a.what is the primary role of the village in Indian life? Heart of Indian life, community comes before individual wishes, different castes live in same village.

19 Ancient China: Geography early civilization began in the area of the Huang He River 1.Chinese Ethical Systems Daoism- renounce worldly ambitions, Laozi founder, harmony with nature, Wu Wei- do nothing unnatural, inner peace Confucianism- harmony through the 5 basic relationships, parent/child- filial piety(respect), kind, protection Elder/younger- set an example, respect husband/wife- carries out family duties, obedient ruler/subjects,- acts justly, loyal friend/friend - equal Legalism- founder Hanfeizi, strict laws and harsh punishments, people are evil by nature

20 1.Zhou Dynasty a.mandate of Heaven provides divine justification for rule, it is used to take power away from corrupt rulers and to give power to new rulers. This was first used to justify the conquest of the Shang dynasty by the Zhou dynasty. b.dynastic Cycle the rise and fall of family dynasties. A dynasty is a series of rulers from a single family. c.improvements in Technology and Trade 2.Qin Dynasty a.what were the major accomplishments of Shi Huangdi? Defeated foreign invaders Stopped internal resistance Doubled China s size

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